原创丨细述托福听力讲座开头方式(上)


来源:   时间:2017-01-19 11:26:35

在备考托福听力时,完成听懂语义这一关后,培养听语篇时的版块意识非常重要。它能够帮助我们更好地梳理文章线索,有的放矢,有条不紊地听取信息,更能帮我们有效记住重要细节,做到做题时心中有数。
 
所谓版块意识就是把一定语义单位的信息归纳为一个整体的能力。比如,不管是什么结构类型的讲座,我们都可以把它们划分4个基本版块,即开头、主题、主体及结尾。然后再针对每一版块去划分更细致的信息类型,结构类型。于是对一篇四五十句话的讲座,归纳下来我们往往只需要记住不超过10个的语义版块,就能把重要细节都捕捉到了。

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现在我们针对开头部分对它们的信息类型进行划分。通过对真题的分析,讲座常见的开头方式主要有6种,分别是:1)开门见山式; 2)回顾式;3)寒暄离题式;4)背景引入式; 5)事例引入法;6)问答法。以下我会分别对前三种开头方式给出文本示例以及文本内容对应的考题分析。
 
1) 开门见山式
所谓开门见山,就是开头没有任何寒暄,直奔主题。这种开头方式最利于我们做好主旨题,因为在主旨开头前没有任何干扰。但是,前提是我们对这种开头方式要心中有数,不要以为文章开头一般都会先引入而不以为意,最后猝不及防。针对这种开头方式,一般都直接考查主旨题,不会再考查其他内容。
 
EXAMPLE:
T1L4
开头:For today's discussion, we'll review the case study on how some animals have behaviorally adapted to their environments. Now you had to read about two animal species, the Eastern marmot and the Olympic marmot.
Q1: What is the main topic of the lecture?
A. The types of habitats marmots pre
B. Methods of observing marmot behavior.
C. Feeding of habits of some marmot species.
D. Differences in behavior between marmot species
解析:这篇讲座开头就直接点明主题,表明讲座的主要内容是两种土拨鼠对环境的行为适应。所以我们可知这道主旨题的正确选项应该是D。
 
2) 回顾式
回顾式是指在讲座开头,教授先回顾上节课,本周课程内容,或者本单元内容等,然后才引出这节课真正的主题。针对这种开头,ETS喜欢考功能题,题目通常出现在第二道。考生需要特别注意的是不要把这一部分的内容误认为本节课内容。
 
EXAMPLE:
T21L3
Probably back in some previous biology course you learned that snakes evolved from lizards, and that the first snakes weren't venomous and then along came more advanced snakes, the venomous snakes.
Now, what if I told you that there is a good chance that most everything I just said is wrong?
Q2: Why does the professor review information about the classification of snakes that students probably learned in previous courses?
A. To determine whether the students have enrolled in the appropriate course
B. To stress the usefulness of the classification system for students
C. To present assumptions that have recently been challenged
D. To give an example of a method that she will explain in greater detail
解析:这篇讲座开头先回顾近期生物课内容,然后对其作出评价,对应的功能题答案恰好落在教授的评价"Now,…"这句话。因此,这道题目正解为C。
 
3) 寒暄离题
寒暄离题开头方式一般是先讲一些与课程主题完全无关的内容,比如,一些教学事宜的交代甚至有些教授比较风趣与学生开个玩笑,然后才进入课程的主题内容。遇到这类开头方式,要懂得把这部分分离于主题作为一个单独的语义版块,并且不要以为它与主题无关而轻视它,因为这种类型信息像回顾式信息一样,也常常出功能题。
 
EXAMPLE:
T2L2
Hi, everyone. Good to see you all today. Actually, I expected the population to be a lot lower today. It typically runs between 50 and 60 percent on the day the research paper is due. Um, I was hoping to have your exams back today, but, uh, the situation was that I went away for the weekend, and I was supposed to get in yesterday at five, and I expected to fully complete all the exams by midnight or so, which is the time that I usually go to bed, but my flight was delayed, and I ended up not getting in until one o'clock in the morning. Anyway, I'll do my best to have them finished by the next time we meet.
Q2:Why does the professor mention going away for the weekend?
A. To tell the class a joke
B. To apologize for not completing some work
C. To introduce the topic of the lecture
D. To encourage students to ask about her trip
解析:由开头部分内容我们可知正确答案应为B。由此我们可看出开头寒暄虽然与主题内容无关,但它也是考查的重点。

作者 广州沃邦 许曼琪


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