8月3日考情回顾|托福新政后的首次托福考试阅读&听力部分真题评析


来源:   时间:2019-08-05 14:15:03

作为托福亚太地区(非大陆)改版之后的首次考试,那么,本场考试中的阅读和听力部分有何变化?且听老师们为大家慢慢道来
 

1.阅读部分

 
改革后第一场托福考试终于落下帷幕。与之前的预测一样,新旧题混合的情况不变;词汇题大幅减少,从每篇大致4题减少到大致2题。其他的变化不明显,比如有人认为句子简化题减少了,但其实句子简化题的出题频率一直是0至1道,所以这个不算变化。词汇题比重减少(以及可以简单定位的事实信息题的减少)意味着阅读部分将更看重考生对于段落和篇章的整体理解。如果说之前一些词汇量不错,但篇章整体理解能力以及阅读速度稍逊的考生还能考到一个不错的分数的话,那么之后ETS更加倾向于筛选出(哪怕词汇量并没有很大)能够通过上下文联系准确理解且阅读速度比较快的考生。
 
第一篇:extinctions at the end of cretaceous 白垩纪恐龙灭绝 (旧题)
Paragraph 1: It has long been recognized that the dinosaurs disappeared from the fossil record at the end of the Cretaceous period (65 million years ago), and as more knowledge has been gained, we have learned that many other organisms disappeared at about the same time. The microscopic plankton (free-floating plants and animals) with calcareous shells suffered massively. The foundation of the major marine food chain that led from the minute plankton to shelled animals to large marine reptiles had collapsed.
 
Paragraph 2: On land it was not only the large animals that became extinct. The mammals, most of which were small, lost some 35 percent of their species worldwide. Plants were also affected. For example, in North America 79 percent did not survive, and it has been noted that the survivors were often deciduous; they could lose their leaves and shut down while others could survive as seeds. As in the sea, it seems that on the land one key food chain collapsed: the one with leaves as its basic raw material. These leaves were the food of some of the mammals and of the herbivorous dinosaurs, which in turn were fed on by the carnivorous dinosaurs. Furthermore, it is most likely that these large dinosaurs had slow rates of reproduction, which always increases the risk of extinction. Crocodiles, tortoises, birds, and insects seem to have been little affected. These animals are known to be able to survive for long periods without food, and both can be scavengers (feed on dead material). Indeed, with the deaths of so many other animals and with much dead plant material, the food chain based on detritus would have been well-supplied. Many insects feed on dead material; furthermore, most have at least one resting stage in which they are very resistant to damage. In unfavorable conditions some may take a long time to develop: there is a record of a beetle larva living in dead wood for over 40 years before becoming an adult. Some birds were scavengers, but the survival of many lineages is a puzzle.
 
Paragraph 3: What happened in the biological story just after these extinctions?What is found in and just above the boundary layer between the deposits of the Cretaceous and those of the Tertiary (65¨C2.6 million years ago), termed the K/T boundary?For a very short period the dominant microorganisms in marine deposits were usually diatoms and dinoflagellates (both single-celled types of plankton). The important feature for the survival of both these groups was the ability to form protective cysts (sacs around organisms) that rested on the sea floor.  Above these, in the later deposits, are the remains of other minute plankton, but the types are quite different from those of the Late Cretaceous. In terrestrial deposits a sudden and dramatic increase in fern plant spores marks the boundary in many parts of the world; ferns are early colonizers of barren landscapes. The fern spike (sudden increase), as it is termed, has been found also in some marine deposits (such was the abundance of fern spores blown around the world), and it occurs in exactly the same layer of deposit where the plankton disappear. We can conclude that the major marine and terrestrial events occurred simultaneously.
 
Paragraph 4: Many theories have been put forward for the extinction of the dinosaurs, but most of them can be dismissed. Since 1980 there have been more focused, but still controversy-ridden, investigations. In that year Louis and Walter Alvarez and colleagues from the University of California published their research on the amounts of various metals in the boundary between Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks (K/T boundary) in Italy, Denmark, and New Zealand. They had found, accidentally, that a rare metal, iridium, suddenly became very abundant exactly at the boundary and then slowly fell away. This phenomenon, known as the iridium spike, has now been identified in K/T boundary deposits in over a hundred other sites in the world. Iridium occurs in meteorites and volcanic material, but in the latter case it is accompanied by elevated levels of nickel and chromium. These other metals are not especially abundant at the K/T boundary. The Alvarezes concluded that the iridium spike was due to a large asteroid that struck Earth 65 million years ago.
 
第二篇:The Mycenaean Collapse 迈锡尼文明衰落 (旧题)
早期的Mycenaean culture是源于古代希腊,当年由于古希腊经济很好,城市不断扩张,贸易加剧,呈现出一份祥和繁荣景象,但是后期的Mycenaean culture突然消失,引得大家猜测原因究竟为何?第一种猜测理论是,由于火山喷发,岩浆喷涌而出,损毁了宫殿和大部分文明古迹,人类活动也就因此中断,不过,也有人猜测火山喷发后,岩浆并没有一次性损毁所有文明遗迹,而是一点点销毁,后期的人类就搬离家园到附近的国土建造新的居住地。一些学者反而认为,是Dorian民族一开始侵略了古希腊的南部,后面慢慢攻下更多城池,直到一百年后完全取得对土地的所有权才导致文明失传。从考古学的角度来看,并没有实实在在的物证表明Dorian侵略使得Mycenaean文明失传,但是社会猜测是在一次次的部落争端中,Mycenaean 文明不具备优势,因为他们采取对于军事农业都有中央集权的管理政策,这样的制度非常死板不灵活,导致内部权利受损,直到文明陷落。此外可以肯定的是,Dorian的侵略是具有毁灭性的,他们废除国王,官僚,夺下宫殿,并把财务和权利交给了并没有任何统治经验的人来管理。此后,古希腊人四处流亡,文明就此失传。
 
第三篇:早期欧洲事物的生产 (新题)
 
第四篇:美国终身教授制度 (新题)
 
本部分作者:上海沃邦江老师
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2.托福听力 新篇章 新锅熬旧汤

 
1.有宝宝第一时间问甜不甜,老师我托福听力要不要1.25倍速放呀,听说现在考试变快了。
回答:这次语速的确比较快,但是并不是整体的调快。就好像有的老师说话快有的说话慢一样,本质和均速我相信没有变化。只是这一次偏快。
 
2. 在审题上,选项里面方面的难度没有明显变化,大家反应一般。
 
3. 听力部分对话讲座篇目和解题时间:
Conversation不变,听力题目数不变,减少Lecture数量1篇。从原来的4篇,减少为3篇。
1 C+2 L=10min; 1 C +1 L=6.5min;
加试是小section也就是1 C +1 L=6.5min;
加试并不一定在最后出现!!!!!!!!!
 
4.听力单篇题目数、题型没有变化。
 
5.重听题,这次最奇怪的是重听,七篇只有1条。并不意味着重听要退出江湖。大家且耐心等待后续跟进。
 
6.有英音;语音多元化已经强调多年了。大家要开始适应和习惯。一定会越来越高频,但也不会成为主旋律。
 
7.学科词汇较多;这个怎么说呢,这算变化吗??哪次不多?
 
8.内容设置话题上本次考试采用保守战略。
 
考情简要回顾:
对话1:学生和工作人员:学生想要排练哈姆雷特,排练场所被dance group占了,导致问题。解决方案:换地方。态度:不开心!并考察细节不开心的理解,因为排练需要配合…………要素。
 
对话2:学生和教授:社会实践的主题选择。学生不喜欢考古,但是喜欢这个教授。考察重点:态度,无数的态度。
 
对话3:学生paper讨论。教授指出学生一篇关于plane的paper不足之处,主要是内容不全面。后面pitch和paw的部分写的不好。
对话部分比较简单。
 
讲座1:艺术
New——realism!加入更多生活元素。举例不同艺术家的代表作分析。支持主题。(内容上属于陈旧话题)
 
讲座2:化学
艺术促进化学发展,对,这一次很爱艺术,化学考察极少。这次考到了。
因为pottery的制作引出copper silting。然后导致glass的产生。(一个意外)
 
讲座3:植物学
生物属于陈年鸡汤。
总分列举结构:vine朝向(一个方向)分析
原因列举1.随机理论2.sun theory 3, 地球rotation理论
 
讲座4:文艺复兴,话题简单,但是有很多很多学科名词和解释,比较难。
 
讲座5: 海洋生物学:hydroophone
 
讲座6: 城市规划zooning law
 
讲座7天文学:sunspot 考过很多次了
 
亚太地区目前的回忆如上。
 
总结,新锅熬旧汤,干!
 
本部分作者:上海沃邦刘老师
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原创丨2019-07-07托福考试考情回顾

上周六的托福考试都考察了什么?一起来回忆下吧!

托福新政前最后一场考试:【预见7.28】

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