托福阅读 | 还在用定位法做题?你被坑了!


来源:   时间:2019-12-18 09:50:11

教阅读时间长了,发现很多学生都会问我这个问题:需不需要读完整段话再做这段相应的题目?所以,在这里我想把这个问题详细地回答一下,同时也希望能澄清一些误区。
 
所有问出这个问题的学生其实内心应该都希望得到的答案是不需要读整段。谁都希望能尽量少读一些原文就能做出对应的题目,谁都希望能省点力气,这无可厚非。
 
所以,首先我们来看看最省力,也最受学生们推崇的定位法吧。也就是,从题目中找到关键词定位,然后再扫读文章找到原文中关键词所在句子,之后再通过读关键词所在句子的上下文来确定答案。这样一来,就只读了题目要求的部分,其他“无用”信息就不需要读了,所以这种方法做题感觉很快,很适合那些考试总是觉得时间很紧或者做不完的同学。
 
这种方式好不好呢?我们来看个例子:
Paragraph 4
Rockefeller and other industrialists saw consolidation as a way to cope with what they believed was the greatest curse of the modern economy, “cutthroat competition.” Most businessmen claimed to believe in free enterprise and a competitive marketplace, but in fact they feared that substantial competition could result in instability and ruin for all. As the movement toward consolidation accelerated, new vehicles emerged to facilitate it. The railroads began with so-called pool arrangements—informal agreements among various companies to stabilize rates and divide markets. But if even a few firms in an industry were unwilling to cooperate (as was almost always the case), the pool arrangements collapsed. The failure of the pools led to new techniques of consolidation. At first, the most successful such technique was the creation of the “trust”—pioneered by Standard Oil in the early 1880s and perfected by the banker J. P. Morgan. Under a trust agreement, stockholders in individual corporations transferred their stocks to a small group of trustees in exchange for shares in the trust itself. Owners of trust certificates often had no direct control over the decisions of the trustees, they simply received a share of the profits of the combination. The trustees themselves, on the other hand, might literally own only a few companies but could exercise effective control over many.
 
9.According to paragraph 4, many industrialists in the 1880s worried that
A.pool arrangements would divide markets
B.new vehicles for pool arrangements would fail
C.too much competition would destroy the modern economy
D.trusts would be unable to exert adequate control over companies
 
看到这个题的题干,我的学生告诉我他会用1880s去定位到原文的这句话At first, the most successful such technique was the creation of the “trust”—pioneered by Standard Oil in the early 1880s and perfected by the banker J. P. Morgan. 然后他看了一下是在说trust,但是好像没有提到worried什么,所以再接着往下读吧,而文章之后也基本都在说trust,具体在说什么呢,看得不是太懂,总之都在说trusts,所以他就选了D选项,因为D里面有trusts。这就是这种简单粗暴的定位方式导致的误选。
 
看到这里有些同学可能会说,这是因为他没认真读定位句后面的内容,读懂了的话,应该就能选出答案了。是这样吗?
 
再看这篇文章后面的一道题:
Paragraph 5
In 1889, the state of New Jersey helped produce a third form of consolidation by changing its laws of incorporation to permit companies to buy up the stock of other companies. Other states soon followed. These changes made the trust unnecessary and permitted actual corporate mergers. Rockefeller, for example, quickly relocated Standard Oil to New Jersey and created there what became known as a holding company—a central corporate body that would buy up the stock of various members of the Standard Oil trust and establish direct, formal ownership of the corporations in the trust.
 
12.According to paragraph 5, why did Rockefeller move Standard Oil to New Jersey?
A.To be in a better position to pressure the state to change its laws of incorporation
B.To increase the number of corporations under his control in the Standard Oil trust
C.To raise the needed amounts of money for the establishment of his new holding company
D.To acquire direct, legal ownership of the corporations in the Standard Oil trust
 
看到这个题的题干,我的学生告诉我他会用Standard Oil to New Jersey这些大写的词汇去定位,所以定位到原句的Rockefeller, for example, quickly relocated Standard Oil to New Jersey and created there what became known as a holding company—a central corporate body that would buy up the stock of various members of the Standard Oil trust and establish direct, formal ownership of the corporations in the trust. 这个时候他看到句子里面有buy up the stock of various members of the Standard Oil trust,所以他就选了B选项,因为跟B里面的increase the number of corporations under his control特别一致。
 
很不幸,他又错了。当然,这句原文中还有另外一部分信息establish direct, formal ownership of the corporations in the trust,这点和正确选项D表述一致。但是,问题是,就算你认真读了这部分的信息,凭什么你就知道这个就是答案呢,凭什么buy up the stock of various members of the Standard Oil trust就不是答案呢?
 
所以,选对答案跟认真读完定位句后面的内容并没有关系,就算读完,你也还是无法真正确定答案,你还是要靠感觉。
 
通过以上两个例子,我想告诉大家,表面上节省时间的定位法,其实是在浪费时间浪费生命。这种方式做题虽然速度很快,错得也很快。可悲的是,这种方法却是大部分学生还在用的解题方法,也还有一些行业内的老师在大力弘扬。这就是为什么很多同学可能在20分左右就很难再提升的原因了,甚至很多人也就15分左右。
 
不能用这样“快捷省力”的方法,那么到底应该怎么做呢?
 
这时,有的同学可能就破罐破摔地认为那就应该读完整个一段,好好理解完信息再做题。其实我也并不推荐这种做法。当然,对于学霸来说,可以任性地读完全段,理解了每句话再做题。但是,并不是每个人能像学霸一样轻松读完全段再做题的。对大多数人来说,读完全段的结果就是没怎么读懂而且时间也没了,得不偿失啊。
 
那到底怎么读呢?我们还用上面两个题来示范一下。
Paragraph 4
Rockefeller and other industrialists saw consolidation as a way to cope with what they believed was the greatest curse of the modern economy,“cutthroat competition.” Most businessmen claimed to believe in free enterprise and a competitive marketplace, but in fact they feared that substantial competition could result in instability and ruin for all. As the movement toward consolidation accelerated, new vehicles emerged to facilitate it. The railroads began with so-called pool arrangements—informal agreements among various companies to stabilize rates and divide markets. But if even a few firms in an industry were unwilling to cooperate (as was almost always the case), the pool arrangements collapsed. The failure of the pools led to new techniques of consolidation. At first, the most successful such technique was the creation of the “trust”—pioneered by Standard Oil in the early 1880s and perfected by the banker J. P. Morgan. Under a trust agreement, stockholders in individual corporations transferred their stocks to a small group of trustees in exchange for shares in the trust itself. Owners of trust certificates often had no direct control over the decisions of the trustees, they simply received a share of the profits of the combination. The trustees themselves, on the other hand, might literally own only a few companies but could exercise effective control over many.
 
9.According to paragraph 4, many industrialists in the 1880s worried that
A.pool arrangements would divide markets
B.new vehicles for pool arrangements would fail
C.too much competition would destroy the modern economy
D.trusts would be unable to exert adequate control over companies
 
通过读题干,我会抓住的信息是:题目在问很多industrialists很担心什么。接下来,我不会去找这个信息在原文中的哪个位置,instead,我会从段落第一句话开始读,我会尽量去读懂并理解。第一句话Rockefeller and other industrialists saw consolidation as a way to cope with what they believed was the greatest curse of the modern economy, “cutthroat competition.” 这句话整体结构就是...saw ...as a way to cope with ...,也就是有一个方法可以应对某一个问题。这句话放在段落的首句,那么接下来的内容一定要具体说明那个方法要怎么去应对那个问题。那个方法就是consolidation,而那个问题就是cutthroat competition,整个段落要说这个意思,而且这句话的主语Rockefeller and other industrialists不就是many industrialists吗?所以后面的内容要说他们担忧什么啊,无非就是担忧这句话里的这个问题啊。所以这个题的选项一定要说他们担心cutthroat competition,所以答案选的是C。
 
这个解题过程我就看了段落第一句话,别的内容没看,但是我已经可以确定正确答案了。
 
现在你觉得是定位法快,还是这种读法快呢?是定位准,还是这种读法准呢?
 
我们再试一下刚才的第二个题。
Paragraph 5
In 1889, the state of New Jersey helped produce a third form of consolidation by changing its laws of incorporation to permit companies to buy up the stock of other companies. Other states soon followed. These changes made the trust unnecessary and permitted actual corporate mergers. Rockefeller, for example, quickly relocated Standard Oil to New Jersey and created there what became known as a holding company—a central corporate body that would buy up the stock of various members of the Standard Oil trust and establish direct, formal ownership of the corporations in the trust.
 
12.According to paragraph 5, why did Rockefeller move Standard Oil to New Jersey?
A. To be in a better position to pressure the state to change its laws of incorporation
B. To increase the number of corporations under his control in the Standard Oil trust
C. To raise the needed amounts of money for the establishment of his new holding company
D.To acquire direct, legal ownership of the corporations in the Standard Oil trust
 
通过读题干,我们抓到的信息是:题目问为什么Rockefeller要把Standard Oil 搬到New Jersey。接下来,我还是不会去找这个信息在原文中的哪个位置,instead,我会从段落第一句话开始读,我会尽量去读懂并理解。第一句话In 1889, the state of New Jersey helped produce a third form of consolidation by changing its laws of incorporation to permit companies to buy up the stock of other companies. 这句话的整体结构是...helped produce... by changing...to permit...,也就是通过changing什么什么促进了产生什么什么,这句话的主语正是New Jersey。所以这句话是说New Jersey做了件help什么什么的好事,具体看一下就是a third form of consolidation,那么到底做了什么呢,就是by changing后面的内容,具体看一下就是changing its laws ...to permit companies to buy up the stock of other companies,大概意思就是更改了法律允许公司收购别的公司。
 
结合题目,基本上我就知道Rockefeller把Standard OIl搬到New Jersey 一定跟New Jersey 这个好的政策有关,接下来继续往下读Other states soon followed. These changes made the trust unnecessary and permitted actual corporate mergers.大概意思是后来美国很多州都改了法律最终促进了收购。再往后就看到了Rockefeller, for example...所以立马反应出来例子应该是重复前面的中心,所以心中更加确信刚才的预测:Rockefeller搬家就是因为New Jersey的法律有利于收购别的公司。
 
这时我会立刻停止阅读,马上看选项,A说To be in a better position to pressure the state to change its laws of incorporation,提到了更改法律,但是并不是说New Jersey主动更改,说的是强迫其更改法律,所以不对。
 
B说To increase the number of corporations under his control in the Standard Oil trust,没有体现New Jersey更改了法律使得有利于收购别的公司。
 
C说To raise the needed amounts of money for the establishment of his new holding company,和B是一样的,不对。
 
D说 To acquire direct, legal ownership of the corporations in the Standard Oil trust,意思是搬到New Jersey的话,可以获得直接的合法的对那些corporations的所有权,这跟在New Jersey的法律有利于收购别的公司意思是一致的,能合法对那些corporations有所有权,就是法律允许通过收购去掌控别的公司的意思。所以D是对的。
 
这个解题过程我只读了段落前三句话,其实比较认真地读的只有第一句话。看到Rockefeller的时候,我反而没有继续往下读了,也就是说我根本不读定位法定位的那些信息,所以我也就不会纠结后面的内容具体出现了什么信息,也就不会出现纠结B还是D的问题。
 
通过上面两个题的示范,我想大家也就明白我说的这种阅读方式多么地准确和高效了。
 
我大概总结一下这种高效的阅读方式是如何操纵的:
1. 要真正读明白题目在问什么,不能单纯只找几个关键词
2. 从段落开始按顺序阅读,读出段落中心来,大胆预测段落走向
3. 段落走向基本确定之后,去看选项,正确答案一定会体现你所确定的段落走向
 
或者,用一句话来说,段落出什么题都需要体现段落中心。所以不管你做什么题,如果可以直接用段落中心确定答案的,那就不要去读太细的东西。永远优先用段落中心做题,而不是轻易定位,最后你会发现你比定位做题更快,还更准。
 
最后,我们再做一道题,让大家感受一下彻底碾压定位法的快感。
Paragraph 2
Businessmen created large, consolidated organizations primarily through two methods. One was horizontal integration—the combining of multiple firms engaged in the same enterprise into a single corporation. The consolidation of many different railroad lines into one company was an example. Another method, which became popular in the 1890s, was vertical integration—the taking over of all the different businesses on which a company relied for its primary function. Thus, Carnegie steel controlled mines and railroads as well as steel mills.
 
Paragraph 3
The most celebrated corporate empire of the late nineteenth century was John D. Rockefeller’s Standard Oil. Shortly after 1865, Rockefeller launched a refining company in Cleveland, Ohio, and immediately began trying to eliminate his competition. Allying himself with other wealthy capitalists, he proceeded methodically to buy out competing refineries. In 1870, he formed the Standard Oil Company of Ohio, which in a few years had acquired twenty of the twenty-five refineries in Cleveland, as well as plants in Pittsburgh, Philadelphia, New York, and Baltimore. He built his own barrel factories, warehouses, and pipelines. Standard Oil owned its own railroad freight cars and developed its own marketing organization. By the 1880s, Rockefeller had established such dominance within the petroleum industry that to much of the nation he served as a leading symbol of monopoly.
 
5.According to paragraph 3, which of the following was true of John D. Rockefeller?
A.He acquired most of the oil refineries in Cleveland, Ohio.
B.He bought some companies solely because they made supplies for competing oil refineries.
C.He limited sales of Standard Oil petroleum to companies associated with competing refineries.
D.He built many more new oil refineries than he bought.
 
上面这个题是针对Paragraph 3的,问的是关于John D. Rockefeller哪个说法是对的。一般来说,同学们看到这个题就会去读Paragraph 3里的具体信息,然后一一核对四个选项。这样无疑你需要读的信息会很多,你还要对应选项一个一个去核查,那么你做这道题的时间就会很长。
 
来,看看我是怎么解题的。我为什么要把Paragraph 2也放出来呢?我详细说说我的思路。
 
当我做到这个第五题的时候,其实我已经做过了前面关于Paragraph 2的题目了,因此我也读过Paragraph 2了,所以我知道Paragraph 2讲的是有两种方法让公司合并变大:horizontal和vertical。接下来,我读到Paragraph 3的第一句The most celebrated corporate empire of the late nineteenth century was John D. Rockefeller’s Standard Oil,我立马想到的是:这是一个例子,跟在Paragraph 2的后面肯定是给Paragraph 2做例子的。所以,我整个Paragraph 3就不读了,因为我知道这个第五题问的关于John D. Rockefeller无论哪个是对的一定需要体现Paragraph 2的大中心,也就是用两种方法合并公司让公司变大的。
 
这时,我会立刻看选项。A说的是He acquired most of the oil refineries in Cleveland, Ohio,大概是说,他收购了大部分公司,这与Paragraph 2说的点一致,所以应该是正确的。
 
B说的He bought some companies solely because they made supplies for competing oil refineries,大概意思是说,他买了一些公司因为这些公司给他的对手供应产品,这个收购那些为对手提供供应的公司,与Paragraph 2的点不一致,所以应该不对。
 
C说He limited sales of Standard Oil petroleum to companies associated with competing refineries,一看limited sales就不对路,所以排除。
 
D说He built many more new oil refineries than he bought,说他建的比买的多,一看也不对路,所以排除。最后确定是选A。
 
整个做题过程完全没有去看Paragraph 3里关于John D. Rockefeller具体说了什么,完全只是用Paragraph 2的内容去解的题,不知道要比去Paragraph 3找具体信息的要快多少倍。
 
由于篇幅局限,只能大概聊这么多了。
 
我们最后的结论:
1. 定位法看似是捷径其实是弯路,一点没省劲,反而还做不对;
2. 如果你是学霸,可以选择整段都读;
3. 聪明的你,懂得预判段落走向,懂得准确判断什么需要读,什么不需要读。

 
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