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AP 文学词汇概念汇总,保3争4妥妥的 - 沃邦国际教育

AP 文学词汇概念汇总,保3争4妥妥的


来源:   时间:2017-05-15 09:39:38

  今天是本年度AP考试的最后一天,两周的AP考试重压结束之后,考完的同学终于可以尽情地浪啦。
 
  对国内学生来说,在AP各科目考试中,英语文学与写作是公认的最难科目之一,它不但涉及到大量的阅读,需要学生阅读大量的英文经典书籍,并且对书面表达能力也有较高的要求。因此这门科目考试对中国学生而言还是有一定的困难。如果是英语基础好、对文学有着浓厚学习兴趣并且学有余力的同学,建议可以选择这门科目考试,而英语基础薄弱的同学则不建议报考这门科目考试。
 
  以下是安洋老师为大家准备的AP文学词汇概念汇总,准备明年考文学与写作这门科目的考生可以收藏备用哦,安洋老师建议大家在背词汇/术语的时候,应该有意识地去了解下这个词汇/术语的英文含义,便于考试过程中做题。
 
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  AP 文学词汇概念汇总

 
  abstract an abbreviated synopsis of alonger work of scholarship or research
 
  adage asaying/proverb containing a truth based on experience and often couched inmetaphorical language
 
  allegory a story in which the narrative/characterscarry an underlying symbolic, metaphorical or possibly an ethical meaning
 
  alliteration the repetition of one ormore initial consonant in a group of words or lines of poetry or prose. writersuse this for ornament or for emphasis
 
  allusion a referenceto a person, place, or event meant to create an effect or enhance the meaningof an idea
 
  ambiguity a vaguenessof meaning; a conscious lack of clarity meant to evoke multiple meanings andinterpretation
 
  anachronism a person, scene, event, or other element in literature that failsto correspond with the time/era in which the work is set
 
  analogy a comparison that points out similarities between two dissimilarthings
 
  annotation a brief explanation,summary, or evaluation of a text or work ofliterature
 
  antagonist a character or force in awork of literature that, by opposing the protagonist produces tension orconflict
 
  antithesis a rhetorical opposition orcontrast of ideas by means of a grammatical arrangement of words, clauses, orsentences
 
  aphorism a short, pithy statement ofa generally accepted truth or sentiment
 
  Apollonian in contrast to Dionysian, it refers to the most noble, godlikequalities of human nature and behavior
 
  apostrophe a locution that addresses aperson/personified thing not present
 
  archetype an abstract or idealconception of a type; a perfectly typical example; an original model/form
 
  assonance the repetition of two or more vowel sounds in a group of words orlines in poetry and prose
 
  ballad a simple narrative versethat tells a story that is sung or recited; a long narrative poem, usually invery regular meter and rhyme, typically has a naive folksy quality
 
  bard a poet, in olden times, a performer who told heroic stories to musicalaccompaniment
 
  bathos矫揉造作 the use ofinsincere or overdone sentimentality
 
  belle-lettres 纯文学the French term for the world of books,criticism, and literature in general
 
  bibliography参考文献 a list of works cited or otherwise relevant to a subject or otherwork
 
  Bildungsroman成长小说a German wordreferring to a novel structured as a series of events that take place as thehero travels in quest of a goal
 
  blankverse无韵体 poetry written in iambic pentameter, the primary meter used inEnglish poetry and the works of Shakespeare and Milton. its lines generally donot rhyme
 
  bombast夸大的言辞inflated, pretentious language used for trivial subjects
 
  burlesque滑稽模仿a work of literaturemeant to ridicule a subject; a grotesque imitation; a broad parody andexaggerates it into ridiculousness
 
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  cacophony grating, inharmonious sounds
 
  caesura a pause somewhere in the middle of a verse, often (but not alwaysmarked by punctuation)
 
  canon the works considered most important in national literature orperiod; works widely read and studied
 
  caricature a grotesque likeness of striking qualities in persons and things; aportrait that exaggerates a facet of personality
 
  carpediem "seize the day"
 
  catharsis a cleansing of the spirit brought about by the pity and terror of adramatic tragedy
 
  classic a highly regarded work of literature or other art form that haswithstood the test of time, similar to canon
 
  classicism deriving from the orderly qualities of ancient Greek and Romanculture; implies formality, objectivity, simplicity and restraint
 
  climax the high point, or turning point, of a story/play
 
  novela tale in which a young protagonist experiences anintroduction to adulthood. the character may develop understanding via disillusionment,education, doses of reality, or any other experiences that alter his/heremotional/intellectual maturity. e.g. Invisible Man
 
  conceita witty or ingenious thought; a diverting or highlyfanciful idea, often stated in figurative language; a startling or unusualmetaphor, or a metaphor developed and expanded upon several lines
 
  anticlimax this occurs when an action produces far smaller results than onehad been led to expect, it is frequently comic in effect
 
  antihero a protagonist who is markedly unheroic: morally weak, cowardly,dishonest, or any number of other unsavory qualities
 
  asidea speech (usually just a short comment) made by anactor to the audience, as though momentarily stepping outside of the action onstage
 
  aspect a trait of characteristic, as in "an aspect of the dewdrop"
 
  atmosphere the emotional tone or background that surrounds a scene
 
  blackhumor this is the use of disturbing themes incomedy. e.g. two tramps comically debating over which should commit suicidefirst, and whether the branches of a tree will support their weight
 
  cadence the beat or rhythm of poetry in a general sense
 
  canto is a divider in long poems, much like chapters in a novel
 
  coinage a.k.a. neologism, inventing a word
 
  colloquialism this is a word or phrase used in everyday conversational Englishthat isn't a part of accepted "schoolbook" English
 
  controllingimage when an image dominates and shapes the entirework
 
  metaphysicalconceit a type of conceit that occurs only inmetaphysical poetry
 
  connotation the suggest or implied meaning of a word/phrase
 
  consonance the repetition of two or more consonant sounds within a group ofwords or a line of poetry
 
  couplet a pair of lines that end in rhyme
 
  heroiccouplet two rhyming lines in iambic pentameter arecalled this
 
  denotation the literal, dictionary definition of a word
 
  denouement the resolution that occurs at the end of a play or work or fiction
 
  deusex machina解围的人或事件in literature, the use of an artificial device or gimmick to solve aproblem
 
  Dionysian酒神精神的 as distinguished from Apollonian, the word refers to sensual,pleasure seeking impulses
 
  diction the choice of words in oral and written discourse
 
  syntax the ordering and structuring of the words in a sentence
 
  dirge a song for the dead, its tone is typically slow, heavy, andmelancholy
 
  dissonance the grating of incompatible sounds
 
  doggerel crude, simplistic verse, often in sing-song rhyme
 
  dramaticirony when the audience knows something that thecharacters in the drama do not
 
  dramaticmonologue when a single speaker in literature sayssomething to a silent audience
 
  elegy a poem or prose selection that laments or meditates on thepassing/death of something/someone of value
 
  elements the basic techniques of each genre of literature. IN SHORT STORY:characters, irony, theme, symbol, plot, setting. IN POETRY: figurativelanguage, symbol, imagery, rhythm, rhyme. IN DRAMA: conflict, characters,climax, conclusion, exposition, rising action, falling action, props. INNONFICTION: argument, evidence, reason, appeals, fallacies, thesis.
 
  ellipsis three periods (...) indicating the omission of words in a thoughtor quotation
 
  empathy a feeling of association or identification with an object/person
 
  endstopped a term that describes a line of poetry thatends with a natural pause often indicated by a mark of punctuation
 
  enjambment the continuation of a syntactic unit from one line or couplet of apoem to the next with no pause
 
  epic an extended narrative poem that tells of the adventures andexploits of a hero that is generally larger than life and is often considered alegendary figure
 
  mockepic a parody form that deals with mundane eventsand ironically treats them as worthy of epic poetry
 
  epitaph lines that commemorate the dead at their burial place. usually aline or handful of lines, often serious or religious, but sometimes witty andeven irreverent
 
  epigram a concise but ingenious, witty and thoughtful statement
 
  euphony when sounds blend harmoniously; pleasing, harmonious sounds
 
  epithet an adjective or phrase that expresses a striking quality of aperson or thing
 
  eponymous a term for the title character of a work of literature
 
  euphemism a mild or less negative usage for a harsh or blunt term
 
  exegesis a detailed analysis or interpretation of a work of literature
 
  expose a piece of writing that reveals weaknesses, faults, frailties, orother short comings
 
  explicit to say or write something directly and clearly
 
  explication the interpretation/analysis of a text
 
  extendedmetaphor a series of comparisons between two unlikeobjects that occur over a number of lines
 
  fable a short tale often featuring nonhuman character that act as peoplewhose actions enable the author to make observations or draw useful lessonsabout human behavior. i.e Orwell's "Animal Farm"
 
  fallingaction the action in a play or story that occursafter the climax and that leads to the conclusion and often to the resolutionof the conflict
 
  fantasy a story containing unreal, imaginary features
 
  farce a comedy that contains an extravagant and nonsensical disregard ofseriousness, although it may have a serious, scornful purpose
 
  figurativelanguage in contrast to literal language, thisimplies meanings. It includes devices such as metaphors, similes, andpersonification, etc.
 
  foil a secondary character whose purpose is to highlight thecharacteristics of a main character, usually by contrast
 
  firstperson narrative a narrative told by a characterinvolved in the story, using first-person pronouns such as "I" and"we"
 
  flashback a return to an earlier time in a story or play in order to clarifypresent actions or circumstances i.e. Invisible Man
 
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  foreshadowing an event or statement in a narrative that suggests, in miniature, alarger event that comes later
 
  foot the basic rhythmic unit of a line in poetry. it is formed by acombination of two or three syllables, either stressed or unstressed
 
  frame a structure that provides premise or setting for a narrative
 
  freeverse a kind of poetry without rhymed lines, rhythmor fixed metrical feet
 
  genre a term used to describe literary forms, such as novel, play, andessay
 
  Gothicnovel a novel in which supernatural horrors and anatmosphere of unknown terror pervades the action. i.e. "Frankenstein"
 
  harangue热烈的演说a forceful sermon,lecture, or tirade
 
  hubris the excessive pride/ambition that leads to the main character'sdownfall
 
  hyperbole exaggeration/deliberate overstatement
 
  humanism a belief that emphasizes faith and optimism in human potential andcreativity
 
  implicit to say or write something that suggests and implies but never saysit directly or clearly
 
  inmedias res Latin for "in the midst ofthings"; a narrative that starts not at the beginning of events but atsome other critical point
 
  idyll a lyric poem or passage that describes a kind of ideal life orplace
 
  image a word or phrase representing that which can be seen, touched,tasted, smelled or felt
 
  inversion switching customary order of elements in a sentence or phrase. whendone badly it can give a stilted, artificial look-at-me-I'm-poetry feel to theverse. type of syntax
 
  irony a mode of expression in which the intended meaning is the oppositeof what is stated, often implying ridicule or light sarcasm
 
  invective a direct verbal assault; a denunciation. i.e. Candide
 
  kenning a device employed in Anglo-Saxon poetry in which the name of athing is replaced by one of its functions/qualities, as in"ring-giver" for king and "wale-road" for ocean
 
  lament a poem of sadness or grief over the death of a loved one or oversome other intense loss
 
  lampoon a satire
 
  lightverse a variety of poetry meant to entertain oramuse, butt sometimes with a satirical thrust
 
  loosesentence a sentence that is complete before itsend. follows customary word order of English sentences i.e. subject-verb-object
 
  periodicsentence a sentence not grammatically completeuntil it has reached its final phrase; sentence that departs from the usualword order of English sentences by expressing its main thought only at the end
 
  lyric personal, reflective poetry that reveals the speaker's thoughts andfeelings about the subject; the word is used to describe tone, it refers to asweet, emotional melodiousness
 
  melodrama a form of cheesy theater in which the hero is very, very good, thevillain mean and rotten, and the heroine oh-so-pure.
 
  litotes a form of understatement in which the negative of the contrary isused to achieve emphasis or intensity
 
  maxim a saying or proverb expressing common wisdom or truth
 
  metaphor a figure of speech that compares unlike objects
 
  metaphysicalpoetry the work of poets, particularly those of17th c., that uses elaborate conceits, is highly intellectual, and expressesthe complexities of love and life
 
  meter the pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables found in poetry
 
  metonymy a figure of speech that uses the name of one thing to representsomething else with which it is associated. e.g. "The White Housesays..."
 
  mode the general form, pattern, and manner of expression of a work ofliterature
 
  montage a quick succession of images/impressions used to express an idea
 
  mood the emotional tone in a work of literature
 
  nemesis the protagonist's archenemy or supreme and persistent difficulty
 
  objectivity this treatment of a subject matter is an impersonal/outside view ofevents
 
  subjectivity this treatment of a subject matter uses the interior/personal viewof a single observer and is typically colored with that observer's emotionalresponses
 
  onomatopoeia words that sound like what they mean
 
  moral a brief and often simplistic lesson that a reader may infer from awork of literature
 
  motif a phrase, idea, event that through repetition serves to unify orconvey a theme in a work of literature.
 
  muse one of the ancient Greek goddesses presiding over the arts. theimaginary source of inspiration for an artist or writer
 
  myth an imaginary story that has become accepted part of the cultural orreligious tradition of a group/society. often used to explain naturalphenomena.
 
  narrative a form of verse or prose that tells a story
 
  naturalism a term often used as a synonym for "realism"; also a viewof experiences that is generally characterized as bleak and pessimistic
 
  nonsequitur不和逻辑的推论a statement or idea that fails to follow logically from the one before
 
  novelof manners a novel focusing on and describing thesocial customs and habits of a particular social group
 
  ode a lyric poem usually marked by serious, respectful and exaltedfeelings toward the subject.
 
  omniscientnarrator a narrator with unlimited awareness,understanding, and insight of characters, setting, background, and all otherelements of the story
 
  oxymoron a phrase composed of opposites; a contradiction. juxtaposition ofcontradictory element to create a paradoxical effect
 
  opposition one of the most useful concepts in analyzing literature. it meansthat you have a pair of elements that contrast sharply.
 
  0ctave an eight-line rhyming stanzaof a poem
 
  parable like a fable or an allegory, it's a story that instructs; a storyconsisting of events from which a moral or spiritual truth may be derived
 
  paradox a statement that seems self-contradictory yet true
 
  parallelism repeated syntactical similarities used for effect
 
  parody an imitation of a work meant to ridicule its style and subject
 
  paraphrase a version of a text put into simpler, everyday, words
 
  pastoral a work of literature dealing with rural life
 
  pathetic fallacy faulty reasoning that inappropriately ascribes humanfeelings to nature or nonhuman objects
 
  pathos that element in literature that stimulates pity or sorrow
 
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  安洋
  沃邦SAT阅读老师,SSAT阅读老师,SAT Subject Test literature老师。上海外国语大学硕士,英美文学方向硕士;有8年第一手面向高中生的授课经验,了解国际学校课程的设置特点难度,熟悉高中生学习心理,善诊断和解决学生英语学习中存在的系统性问题;5年AP英语文学与写作授课经验,授课范围从文艺复兴时期的作品至现当代英语文学作品;擅长用深入浅出的风格向学生呈现不同作者的写作手法和风格,是College Board培训认证的AP教师。阅读积累深厚,熟悉欧美历史文化,对诗歌,小说,戏剧,有独特有效的讲授思路。


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