2018年GMAT年度回顾——语法|沃邦年终总结


来源:   时间:2019-01-30 09:49:01

2018年的Sentence Correction题目难度保持稳定,形式趋于固定,各考察点比例分布与往年较为一致。考察点的具体分布如下表:

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注:考察比例指单个考察点在140题中出现的次数与全部题目数的百分比。(数据来源:GMAT OG 2018)
 
可以看出,logical prediction与rhetorical construction在将近半数的题目中均有出现,仍然是各位同学复习的重点。下面我们将以例题逐条分析2018年GMAT各考察点的形式。
 

1. Logical predication(以下简称LP

LP在考试中指在语法正确的前提下,句子是否能为读者提供足够的信息从而使句子的逻辑清晰、完整、有效。例如:
 
Manufacturers rate batteries in watt‐hours; if they rate the watt‐hour higher, the longer the battery can be expected to last.
(A) if they rate the watt‐hour higher, the longer
(B) rating the watt‐hour higher, it is that much longer
(C) the higher the watt‐hour rating, the longer
(D) the higher the watt‐hour rating, it is that much longer that
(E) when the watt‐hour rating is higher, the longer it is
 
本题中A选项犯了逻辑错误,即they(manufacturers)使电池更加持久。所以即使本选项语法正确,也不满足LP这一考点。B的rating同样暗示是manufacturers所为,同样排除。考试内常见的考察形式为逻辑主语。
  

2. Rhetorical construction(以下简称RC

关于RC的错误一般为语法正确,但构造过长、冗余、意义不清或过于隐晦。当几个选项之间的区别不够明显,或难以令人决断时,则应当考虑RC进行排除。如下题:
 
A long‐term study of some 1,000 physicians indicates that the more coffee these doctors drank, the more they had a likelihood of coronary disease.
(A) more they had a likelihood of coronary disease
(B) more was their likelihood of having coronary disease
(C) more they would have a likelihood to have coronary disease
(D) greater was their likelihood of having coronary disease
(E) greater was coronary disease likely
 
本题的C选项中,would have a likelihood to have这种表达比较啰嗦,所以即使没有其他硬性错误,也不能优先选择本选项,达到排除的效果。此类题目的思路均较为类似。
 

3. Grammatical construction(以下简称GC

GC在题目中考察语法是否正确。包含主谓关系、从句、修饰语等语法元素的句子都可以成为GC类题目的载体。要做好本类题目必须掌握SC考试所有语法点的细节来加以排除,例如:
 
While Noble Sissle may be best known for his collaboration with Eubie Blake, as both a vaudeville performer and as a lyricist for songs and Broadway musicals, also enjoying an independent career as a singer with such groups as Hahn’s Jubilee Singers.
(A) and as a lyricist for songs and Broadway musicals, also enjoying
(B) and writing lyrics for songs and Broadway musicals, also enjoying
(C) and a lyricist for songs and Broadway musicals, he also enjoyed
(D) as well as writing lyrics for songs and Broadway musicals, he also enjoyed
(E) as well as a lyricist for songs and Broadway musicals, he had also enjoyed
 
A选项中and后面需要完整的句子,但其后没有主语及谓语,所以在语法上错误。B选项也是同类的错误。这一类错误较前两类更加容易判断,但有时容易忽略。
  

4. Parallelism(以下简称P

P即平行结构与比较结构是GMAT中最常见的语法考点之一,其考察方式有一定规律但形式较为复杂。例如:
 
In her presentation, the head of the Better Business Bureau emphasized that companies should think of the cost of conventions and other similar gatherings as not an expense, but as an investment in networking   that will pay dividends.
(A) as not an expense, but as
(B) as not expense but
(C) not an expense, rather
(D) not as an expense, but as
(E) not in terms of expense, but
 
本题主要考察not…but搭配,而其后的内容要保持一致。由此D、E选项因not及but前后的内容不一致被排除。
  

5. Verb form(以下简称VF

VF主要涉及动词的时态、语态、语气、数,包含被动语态、虚拟语气等内容。这一考点比较易于发现,经常被当作决定性的判断标志。如:
 
In a review of 2,000 studies of human behavior that date back to the 1940s, two Swiss psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size, none could be taken seriously.
(A) psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,
(B) psychologists, declaring that most of the studies failed in not controlling for such variables like social class and family size, and
(C) psychologists declared that since most of the studies, having failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,
(D) psychologists declared that since most of the studies fail in controlling for such variables like social class and family size,
(E) psychologists declared that since most of the studies had failed to control for variables such as social class and family size,
 
A、 B选项中的declaring为现在分词,而本句中需要原型,故排除;而D选项中动词declared 和fail时态不同,同样要予以排除。

6. Idiom

Idiom指英语习语,此类题目中因为国内考生大多对其不够熟悉,idioms一般用作次要判断依据。附GMAT常见习语列表:

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7. Agreement

Agreement指主谓一致。此类考察点非常明显且易于判断,一般作为首要排除手段。其主要内容为:主语的数一定要与谓语的数一致。例如:
 
Recent interdisciplinary studies advance the argument that emotions, including those deemed personal or private is a social phenomenon, though one inseparable from bodily response.
(A) private is a social phenomenon, though one inseparable
(B) private, are social phenomena that are inseparable
(C) private are a social phenomenon but are not those separable
(D) private—are social phenomena but not separable
(E) also as private emotions, are social phenomena not inseparable
 
从选项在很容易看出,主语为emotions故动词应为are,所以A选项可以直接排除。后续的排除可以继续应用其他前面所述的考察点。
  

8. Diction

Idiom涉及短语,diction则指单个词语的运用。此类考察点不适合用作首要判断依据,并且依赖一定的词汇基础。例如:
 
In 1979 lack of rain reduced India’s rice production to about 41 million tons, nearly 25 percent less than those of the 1978 harvest.
(A) less than those of the 1978 harvest
(B) less than the 1978 harvest
(C) less than 1978
(D) fewer than 1978
(E) fewer than that of India’s 1978 harvest
 
本题明显考察less(little)与fewer(few)所能修饰对象的区别。D、E选项中的few只能修饰可数名词,不适用于本题所述的production,故可以排除。
  

9. Modification

Modification指定语、状语等修饰语(包括定语状语的从句形式)的修饰行为。修饰语的种类、位置、限定都可以成为考点,例如:
 
A pioneer journalist, Nellie Bly’s exploits included circling the globe faster than Jules Verne’s fictional Phileas Fogg.
(A) A pioneer journalist, Nellie Bly’s exploits included
(B) The exploits of Nellie Bly, a pioneer journalist, included
(C) Nellie Bly was a pioneer journalist including in her exploits the
(D) Included in the pioneer journalist Nellie Bly’s exploits are
(E) The pioneer journalist’s exploits of Nellie Bly included
 
本题中修饰语“a pioneer journalist”分别被放在不同的位置。其中A选项其指代exploits,故错误;E选项暗示pioneer journalist与Nellie Bly不是同一人,位置错误,同样予以排除。
 
以上的考点构成了GMAT sentence correction的所有基本考察点。而在实际做题中,同学们要分清考察点的种类和优先级,先使用高优先级的依据排除,一步步得出正确答案。祝同学们都能在实考中都能考出成绩,进入理想学府!

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