浅谈GMAT | 你真的会做句子改错吗?


来源:   时间:2020-10-30 11:44:08

1.OG2020解读

GMAT官方指南(Official Guide)作为考试官方出版的备考材料,选取过去实战中的原题,体现出GMAC的出题方向和考察内容。
1. OG2020句子改错新增题目数量与难度分布
OG20综合SC新增13题,11题难度为Medium,2题难度为Easy。

2. OG2020句子改错新增题目考查内容分布
表一总结了新增题目设计的知识点。新增题目中,涉及到句意逻辑的题目数量最多,在13题中占6题;修辞、文法结构和用词考点次之,占5题。
 
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(表一)
 
表二总结了每一题考查的知识点。从表格中可以直观地看出,句子改错部分几乎不会单独考查某一知识点,而是将多个知识点打包组合来考查学生对句式和句意的理解能力。
 
这样的考察方式不难看出官方给考生的一个信号:不能每个选项只抓一个考点,而是尽可能地把每一个选项里所有考点抓出来,从而当面对各有优劣的两个选项时,才能从多个角度进行综合评估。
 
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(表二)
 
3. OG2020句子改错部分八大考点总结
新版官方指南中列出的八大考点分类和OG2019保持一致。
 
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3.1 Agreement 一致性
在OG2020中,官方列出了两类Agreement的考点:
主谓一致
√:Each of the circuits has its own switch.
×:Each of the circuits have its own switch.
指代一致
√:I threw away the banana and the mango because they were both spoiled.
×:I threw away the banana and the mango because it was both spoiled.
 
虽然大部分考生能够辨别出这两大类Agreement考点的正确与错误使用方式,但是在实战中遇到长难句式结构时往往会忽略句子结构中的一致性。不难看出,官方希望考生能够加强对长难句式结构的敏感度。
 
思考一下,以下这个句子有什么问题:
The prospects of harnessing Niagara Falls to produce electric power was exciting to Nikola Tesla, the inventor of alternating current, and so he predicted in the mid-1890's that electricity generated at Niagara would one day power the streetcars of London and the streetlights of Paris.
 
3.2 Diction 用词
OG2020中对用词这一考点的细分如下:
形容词与副词的使用
√:I could easily tell that the cat was friendly.
×:I could easy tell that the cat was friendly
代词的使用
√:I gave him a good performance rating.
×:I gave himself a good performance rating.
量词的使用
√:Fewer deliveries arrived today than yesterday.
×:Less deliveries arrived today than yesterday.
介词的使用
√:The editor was sitting in his office all afternoon.
×:The editor was sitting into his office all afternoon.
 
3.3 Grammatical Construction 语法结构
OG2020中对语法结构这一考点的细分如下:
句子完整性
√:In any case, the contract is acceptable.
×:In any case is acceptable.
使用正确的标点与连接词
√:The weather yesterday was hot, and there were thunderstorms in the evening.
×:The weather yesterday was hot and there were thunderstorms in the evening.
特殊结构
the more…,the more…
倒装句型
In neither case could I find the needed information.
句子的省略
The film I saw last night was boring.
 
语法结构强调语法层面上的正确性,需要考生判断选项是否是一个完整的句子。判断一个简单句是否完整很容易,但是在GMAT中几乎找不到一个“简单”句。GMAT的常规操作是在各个选项中加入大量修饰语和从句,并在这些修饰部分中设置一些不易察觉的语法结构错误,如缺少动词,Run-on以及双重主语。这就需要考生在重重修饰中找到他们的修饰对象,也就是句子的核心。
 
思考一下,以下这个句子有什么问题:
Nikola Tesla, the inventor of alternating current, because he was excited with the prospects of harnessing Niagara Falls for producing electric power, he predicted in the mid-1890's that electricity generated at Niagara would one day power the streetcars of London and the streetlights of Paris.
 
3.4 Idiom 固定搭配
OG2020对这一考点的解释如下:“Idioms are standard forms of expression that consist of ordinary words but whose uses cannot be inferred from the meanings of their component parts or the basic conventions of grammar and usage.”也就是在英语母语使用者中公认的表达方式。
 
OG2020中对固定搭配这一考点的细分如下:
介词搭配
with regard to, depend on
连接词的固定搭配
as…as, not only…but also
动词搭配
give up on, turn out
代词
there be
复合修饰语
all in all
 
特别需要注意的是,在考点的最后,OG特别强调了Idioms不会考查过时的、专业领域中使用的以及口语化的固定搭配,说明GMAT不会考太难的固定搭配,考到的一定是考生学过的或者是看见过的。
 
3.5 Logical Prediction 有效逻辑
OG2020中对有效逻辑这一考点的细分如下:
修饰部分贴近修饰对象
√:Concerned that the snake might be venomous, the workers left it in the crate untouched.
×:Concerned that it might be venomous, the snake was left untouched by the workers in the crate.
代词清楚指代先行词
√:After reviewing the report from the consultants, the company may consider changing the logo.
×:After it has reviewed the report from the consultants, the logo may be considered for changing by the company.
语意搭配合理
√:The three types of wildlife most often seen in the park are sparrows, mallards, and squirrels, in that order.
×:The single most often type of wildlife seen in the park is the sparrow, the mallard, and the squirrel, in that order.
省略或多余用词影响语意的合理性
√:The car was traveling slowly along the highway.
×:The car's speed was traveling slowly along the highway.
逻辑颠倒
√:Forecasters said the cold front will move through the region tomorrow.
×:Forecasters, said the cold front, will move through the region tomorrow.
歧义用词
√:She has studied Greek and speaks that language in addition to Gujarati.
×:She has studied Greek and speaks it as well as Gujarati.
 
思考一下,以下句子在逻辑语义上有什么问题?
Unlike the nests of leaf cutters and most other ants, situated underground or in pieces of wood, raider ants make a portable nest by entwining their long legs to form "curtains" of ants that hang from logs or boulders, providing protection for the queen and the colony larvae and pupae.
 
3.6 Parallelism 平行结构
OG2020中对平行结构这一考点的细分如下:
确保多项动词,形容词或副词形式上的平行
√:I ate supper, went for a walk, and then visited some friends.
×:I ate supper, then walking, and then visitation of some friends.
确保固定搭配间并列内容的平行
√:We were impressed not only by the beauty of the inlets and beaches but also by the diversity of the plant life.
×:We were impressed not only by the beauty of the inlets and beaches but also the diversity of the plant life impressed us.
判断正确的平行对象
√:He mended the torn fabric with a needle and thread.
×:He mended the torn fabric with a needle and mended it with thread.
判断平行对象的顺序
√:Last week we had four meetings, of which the first, second, and third were on Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday and the last one Friday.
×:Last week we had four meetings of which the last was on Friday, with the first, second, and third being on Thursday, Tuesday, and Wednesday.
 
思考一下,这句话在平行上有什么不足之处:
Just as they recycled ancient Egyptian architectural materials in constructing ancient Greek Alexandria, so ancient Greek materials from the construction of that city were reused in subsequent centuries by Roman, Muslim, and modern builders.
 
3.7 Rhetorical Construction 修辞结构
OG2020中对修辞结构这一考点的细分如下:
精简用词
√:We will carefully review your memo and let you know whether we are interested in the solutions you propose.
×:We will "review"--i.e., carefully scrutinize--your memo submitted, letting you know, vis-à-vis the memo's contained proposal details, whether there is interest, on your part, or not, in those.
表意明确
√:In medical diagnosis, influenza can be understood as an acute respiratory infection caused by any of the influenza viruses.
×:In medical diagnosis, influenza can be understood as when a virus affects you.
主被动
√:We had lunch in the hotel.
×:Lunch was had in the hotel by us.
 
由于修辞结构是句子改错部分常考的内容,简洁性又是修辞结构的重点,考生或许会采用“选最短的选项”这一看似安全的策略。也有些考生认准了精确表述这一要求,认为选择最长选项是保险做法。但是深谙博弈之道的GMAT出题人不会设计出用固定做题技巧就能解出的题目,我们需要根据选项之间的差异灵活判断。
 
思考一下,下面这个句子在表意上有何不足之处:
An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action is likely to miss or misinterpret signs of incipient trouble when they do appear, especially if it has worked well in the past.
 
3.8 Verb Form 动词形式
句子改错部分对动词形式的考查主要有以下内容:
时态
由于缺少语境,需要借由句内语义判断时态
出现两个动词时,避免时态上的矛盾
动名词分词与不定式
√:Having nowhere else to go, I wandered through the airport all day.
×:My having nowhere else to go wandered through the airport all day.
√:Widely disliked, the software went unused.
×:To have widely disliked it, the software went unused.
√:My colleagues went to find another microphone.
×:My colleagues went find another microphone.
 
思考一下,以下这个句子中动词时态使用的正确吗?
Australian embryologists have found evidence to suggest that the elephant had descended from an aquatic animal and its trunk originally evolved as a kind of snorkel.
 
关于考点的小总结
GMAT考试的语文部分一直困扰广大考生,相信很多初次接触GMAT考试的小伙伴都会恐惧那段被GMAT支配的日子。布鲁斯·韦恩说过,要想战胜恐惧,必先成为恐惧。在GMAT的世界也是如此:当我们了解考点后,不妨站在出题专家的角度,换位思考,揣摩考点和错误选项设置方式,将自己变为出题人。
 
4. OG2020中关于如何看待选项的建议
 
OG2020第762页中有如下一段话“Sometimes you may be able to think of a wording that works better than any of the options presented, but the task is to find the most effective of the available choices within the parameters of the problem posed. ” 也就是说,当看完选项时,也许我们能想出一个比所有选项更好的句子表述方式,但是牢记我们的任务是:在仅有的五个选项中找出最有效的表达。
 
首先,我们要做的不是质疑正确选项,正确选项永远是对的。正确的思考方向是评估哪一个选项最好,为什么这个选项综合评估后赢过其他选项。
 
其次,对于错误的选项,我们不需要提出“如何改正确”这类问题。我们需要做的是观察选项之间的差异点,从选项与选项间的差异出发,去思考这样的改写好或者不好在哪里,而不是发明一个与官方风格迥异的改写方式。
 
最后,切忌将选项孤立化,判断每一个选项正确与否。特别是对于存在句意逻辑这一考点的题目,当我们孤立单个选项进行判断时,或许会感到每个选项都非常合理,找不到选项存在的问题,从而陷入困境。我们应当采用纵向比较的方式,客观看待每一个选项。
 

 2.GMAT Official Advanced Questions (OAQ) 难题分册

 
1. 难题分册内容介绍
GMAC官方出版了一本336页的高阶真题集。官方对这一习题集的介绍是这样的——“Some of these questions have appeared in earlier editions of the GMAT Official Guide series. Others have never been published before.” 也就是说,题目源自历年GMAT考试难题,部分题目源自过去的OG,部分题目至本书出版前未发布过。
 
2. 难题分册题目分布
难题分册收录了150道数学题和150道语文题。其中语文部分中句子改错题目的比重为34%,共计51题。
 
3. 难题分册的使用建议
根据官方的建议,难题分册的受众是完成GMAT官方指南中的简单、中等和困难问题组合之后,想要挑战自身能力的考生。
 
另外,题目是历年GMAT考试的难题,也就是俗称的“700+题”,需要攻克此类难题的考生,GMAT分数需要已经达到680分以上。为什么呢?简单来说,遇不到。如果成绩未达到680分的水平,可能在考场上遇不到这类题。GMAT考试的一大特点就是其自适应性的考试特性,考试过程中会根据考生的答题表现,随时调整变化之后的题目难度。处在680分以下分数段的考生,必然在某些单项或者能力点上存在漏洞,造成考试过程中的难度向下调整,导致完成了这些700+题目,考试中也遇不到这类题目。
                                                                                                           
总的来说,当考生备考时已经完成OG但没有达到需要做难题的分数时,备考重点应仍放在OG上。


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