2019年10月26日雅思考情! 烤鸭们你们还好吗?


来源:   时间:2019-10-30 15:55:48

10月26日雅思考试刚刚落下帷幕,为了便于留学孩纸们了解本次考试考情,沃邦教研团队为大家整理了考情回顾
在这里分享给孩纸们,希望对大家接下来的备考有所帮助!
 

听力部分

 
Section1
1.work


2.Simerton
3.3years
4.flat
5.north
6.park
7.pool
8.600
9.15
10.hotel

Section 2
11.lake
12.picnic
13. flowers
14.20 minutes
15.motor
16.art gallery
17.concert hall
18.2.30
19-20.flight on the hot balloon; local newspaper

Section 3 
21.the reception---daily routine of hotel
22.the restaurant---very strict
23.the coffee bar—short of staff
24.the shop---very tiring
25.personnel office---needs patience
26.the cleaning---noisy
27.good for her future job
28.she can show her students how to do a presentation
29.go and talk with the career organization
30.about the rise of the five-star hotel
Section4
31.surprising
32.they do not provide real language
33.lack of reasoning ability and do not know the next idea
34 sight vision
35 smell
36 landmarks
37 people
38 good eyesight
39 machines/robots
40 they do well
 

阅读部分

 
P1:Rainmaker
Sometimes ideas just pop up out of the blue. Or in Charlie Paton’s case, out of the rain. “I was in a bus in Morocco travelling through the desert,” he remembers. “it had been raining and the bus was full of hot, wet people. The windows steamed up and o went to sleep with a towel against the glass. When I woke, the thing was soaking wet. I had to wring it out. And it set me thinking. Why was it so wet?”
The answer, of course, was condensation. Back home in London, a physicist friend, Philip Davies, explained that the glass, chilled by the rain outside, had cooled the hot humid air inside the bus below its dew point, causing droplets of water to form on the inside of the window. Intrigued, Paton ---- a lighting engineer by profession ---- started rigging up his own equipment. “I made my own solar stills. It occurred to me that you might be able to produce water in this way in the desert, simply by cooling the air. I wondered whether you could make enough to irrigate fields and grow crops.”
Today, a decade on, his dream has taken shape as a giant greenhouse on a desert island off Abu Dhabi in the Persian Gulf ----- the first commercially viable version of his “seawater greenhouse.” Local scientists, working with Paton under a licence from his company Light Works, are watering the desert and growing vegetables in what is basically a giant dew-making machine that produces fresh water and cool air from sun and seawater. In awarding Paton first prize in a design competition two years ago, Macro Goldschmied, president of the Royal Institution of British Architects, called it “a truly original idea which has the potential to impact on the lives of millions of people living in coastal water-starved areas around the world.”
The design has three main parts(see Graphic). The greenhouse faces into the prevailing wind so that hot, dry desert air blows in through the front wall of perforated cardboard, kept wet and cool by a constant trickle of seawater pumped up from the nearby shoreline. The evaporating seawater cools and moistens the air. Last June, for example, when the temperature outside the Abu Dhabi greenhouse was 46℃. The cool, moist air allows the plants to grow faster, and because much less water evaporates from the leaves their demand for moisture drops dramatically. Paton’s crops thrived on a single litre of water per square metre per day, compared to 8 litres if they were growing outside.
The second feature also cools the air for the plants. Paton has constructed a double0layered roof with an outer layer of clear polythene and an inner, coated layer that reflects infrared light. Visible light can stream through to maximize photosynthesis, while heat from the infrared radiation is tripped in the space between the layers, away from the plants.
At the back of the greenhouse sits the third element the main water-production unit. Just before entering this unit, the humid air of the greenhouse mixes with the hot, dry air from between the two layers of the roof. This means the air can absorb more moisture as it passes through a second moist cardboard wall. Finally, the hot saturated air hits a condenser. This is a metal surface kept cool by still more seawater ----- the equivalent of the window on Paton’s Moroccan bus. Drops of pure distilled water form on the condenser and flow into a tank for irrigating the crops.
The greenhouse more or less runs itself. Sensors switch everything on when the sun rises and alter flows of air and seawater through the day in response to changes in temperature, humidity and sunlight. On windless days, fans ensure a constant flow of air through the greenhouse. “Once it is tuned to the local environment, you don’t need anyone there for it to work,” says Paton. “We can run the entire operation off one 13-amp plug, and in future we could make it entirely independent of the grid, powered from a few solar panels.”
The net effect is to evaporate seawater into hot desert air, then recondense the moisture as fresh water. At the same time, cool moist air flows through the greenhouse to provide ideal conditions for the crops. The key to the seawater greenhouse’s potential is its unique combination of desalination and air conditioning. By tapping the power of the sun it can cool as efficiently as a 500-kilowatt air conditioner while using less than 3 kilowatts of electricity. In practice, it evaporates 3000 litres of seawater a day and turns it into about 800 litres of fresh water --- just enough to irrigate the plants. The rest is lost as water vapour.
Critics point out that construction costs of £25 per square metre mean the water is twice as expensive as water from a conventional desalination plant. But the comparison is misleading, says Paton. The natural air conditioning in the greenhouse massively increases the value of that water. Because the plants need only an eighth of the water used by those grown conventionally, the effective cost is only a quarter that of water from a standard desalinator. And costs should plummet when mass production begins, he adds.
Best of all, the greenhouse should be environmentally friendly. “I suppose there might be aesthetic objections to large structures on coastal sites,” says Harris, “but it is a clean technology and doesn’t produce pollution or even large quantities of hot water.”
题目:
T/F/NG
1.Paton came up with the idea of making water in desert by pure accident.
2.The bus Paton rode in had poor ventilation because of broken fans.
3.Paton woke up from sleep to discover that his towel was wet.
4.Paton started his greenhouse project immediately after meeting up with his friend.
5.Paton later opened his own business in the Persian Gulf.
 
Diagram
Summary
The greenhouse Paton built is installed with _____ to keep the air flowing if the wind stands still, and it is expected in the future to rely on electricity provided solely by _____. Despite the high construction costs compared to desalination plant, the plants grown in Paton’s greenhouse need much less water, and if produced in large quantities the _____ could be reduced remarkably. In addition to all these advantages, it is also _____, because it is clean and pollution free.
 
P2Corporate social Responsibility-a new concept of"market"
Maybe Ben & Jerry's and The Body Shop set themselves up for a fall by appearing to have a monopoly on nuking an honest buck. But their struggles are a lesson on how little we know about the minefield of "ethical" marketing. 
The Body Shop, along with the American ice cream maker Ben and Jerry's, was hailed as a new breed of green, or environmentally conscious, business. 
Ben and Jerry’s
ABen & jerry's offers a very sweet benefits package to employees. First, every one of the 700+ Ben & Jerry's workers is entitled to three free pints of ice cream, sorbet or frozen yogurt per day worked. (Some workers even use allotments of their free treats to barter for other goods and services in town such as haircuts). Beyond the freebies,personnelreceives a 50% discount on the company's frozen goodies, a 40% discount on merchandise and a further 30% break on non-Ben & Jerry's foods at company outlets. 
BWorkers are further entitled to be paid family leave and may take advantage of the Employee Stock Purchase Program to purchase company stock (after six months with the organization) at a 15% discount. Beginning in 1998, 316 stock options are awarded to each worker (excluding directors and officers) and stock is also assigned to each employee's 401K plan at the end of the calendar year. These contributions are intended to achieve the company's goal of linked prosperity, i.e. to assure that future prosperity is widely shared by all employees. 
COther benefits include: 
Health insurance, including coverage for well baby-care and mammograms 
Life insurance (twice the employee's annual salary) 
Dental insurance 
Long-term disability plan paying 60% of salary six months after disability for duration of disability 
Short-term disability plan paying 60% of salary for six months 
Maternity leave with full pay for six weeks after delivery 
The Body Shop
DHistory of The Body Shop Anita Roddick started The Body Shop with a mere £4,000 and a dream. With over 1,900 stores in 50 countries. The Body Shop was founded in 1976 in Brighton, England. From her original shop, which offered a line of 25 different lotions, creams, and oils, Roddick became the first successful marketer of body care products that combined natural ingredients with ecologically-benign manufacturing processes. Her company's refusal to test products on animals, along with an insistence on nonexploitative labor practices among suppliers around the world, appealed especially to upscale, mainly middleclass women, who were and have continued to be the company's primary market As sales boomed, even the conservative financial markets approved of The Body Shop's impressive profit picture, and a public stock offering in 1984 was successful. An expansion campaign followed. In 1988 the company entered the U.S. market by opening a store in New York City, and by 1997 the company boasted 1,500 stores, including franchises, in 47 countries. Anti-marketing seemed to be smart marketing, at least as far as The Body Shop was concerned. 
EPart of the secret of The Body Shop’s early success was that it had created a market niche for itself. The company was not directly competing against the traditional cosmetics companies, which marketed their products as fashion accessories designed to cover up flaws and make women look more like the 
fashion models who appeared in their lavish ads. Instead, The Body Shop offered a line of products that promised benefits other than appearance—healthier skin, for instance—rather than simply a better-looking complexion. The company is known for pioneering the natural-ingredient cosmetic market and establishing social responsibility as an integral part of company operations. The Body Shop is known for its ethical stances, such as its monetary donations to the communities in which it operates, and its business partnerships with developing countries. In 1988 Roddick opened her first store in the United States, and by that time—through various social initiatives such as the "Stop the Bum" campaign to save the Brazilian rainforest (the source of many of the company's natural ingredients,and strong support of employee volunteerism——The Body Shop name had become synonymous with social activism and global preservation worldwide. The company had also become immensely profitable. 
FBy the mid-1990s, however. The Body Shop faced growing competition, forcing it to begin its first major advertising initiative, the most prominent part of which was the “Ruby” campaign. The campaign was personified by Ruby, a doll with Rubenesque proportions who was perched on an antique couch and who looked quite pleased with herself and her plump frame. Randy Williamson, a spokesperson for The Body Shop, said, “Ruby is the fruit of our long-established practice of challenging the way the cosmetic industry talks to women. The Ruby campaign is designed to promote the idea that The Body Shop creates products designed to enhance features, moisturize, cleanse, and polish, not to correct ‘flaws’. The Body Shop philosophy is that there is real beauty in everyone. We are not claiming that our products perform miracles." 
GThe Competition the Body Shop lost market share in the late 1990’s to product-savvy competitors that offered similar cosmetics at lower prices. The main competitors are H20, Sephora, Bath and Body Works, and Origins. Research Results Research showed that women appreciate The Body Shop for its ethical standards. They are pleased by companies with green actions, not promises. The research proved that The Body Shop has been put on the back burner in many people's minds: overcrowded by newer, fresher Brands Companies like the Body Shop continually hype their products through advertising and marketing, often creating a demand for something where a real need for it does not exist. The message pushed is that the route to happiness is through buying more and more of their products. Under such consumerism, the increasing domination of multinationals and their standardised products is leading to global cultural conformity. Other downfall factors also include misleading the public, low pay and against unions, exploiting indigenous people ; Also the mass production, packaging and transportation of huge quantities of goods is using up the world's resources faster than they can be renewed and filling the land, sea and air with dangerous pollution and waste. 
HThe Problem The Body Shop has used safe and timid advertising over the last decade, decreasing market share and brand value. With the rise of new, more natural and environmentally friendly competitors, The Body Shop can no longer stand behind being the greenest or most natural. The Solution The Body Shop is the originator of ethical beauty with our actions speaking louder than our words. This is the new direction of The Body Shop. We will be a part of different acts of kindness in big cities. We will eliminate unwanted graffiti, purify city air, and give the customer an opportunity to be a part of something good. 
Questions 1-4
The reading Passage has seven paragraphs A-H. 
Which paragraph contains the following information? 
Write the correct letter A-H, in boxes 1-4 your answer sheet. 
1 An action taken to Establishing social responsibility in conservation project 
2 a description of the conventional way the ads applied to talk to its customers 
3 A history of a humble origin and expansion 
4 management practices arc intended to lined up the company's goal with participants' prosperity 
Questions 5-7
Choose the three correct letter, A- F. 
Write your answers in boxes 5-7 on your answer sheet. 
5-7) What are true about the Ben & Jerry's company management 
A There was little difference between the highest salary and the lowest 
B They were advertising their product with powerful internal marketing. 
C They offer the employee complimentary product
D Employee were encouraged to give services back to the community 
E the products are designed for workers to barter for other goods and services 
F offered a package of benefits for disable employees 
Questions 8-10
Choose the three correct letter, A- F. 
Write your answers in boxes 8-10 on your answer sheet. 
What are the factors once contributed to the success for the BODY SHOP ? 
A pioneering the natural-ingredient cosmetics market 
B appealed to primary market mainly of the rich women 
C focused on their lavish ads campaign 
D The company avoided producing the traditional cosmetics products 
E its moral concept that refuses to use animals- tested ingredients 
F its monetary donations to the communities and in developing countries 
Questions 11-13
Choose the three correct letter, A- F. 
Write your answers in boxes 11-13 on your answer sheet. 
What arc the factors leading to the later failure for BODY SHOP company? 
A its philosophy that there is real beauty in everyone is faulty 
B fail to fulfill promises while acted like misleading the public 
C faced growing competition 
D its creating demand for something that the customers do not actually need 
E its newer, fresher Brands are not successful in the Market 
F fail to offer cosmetics at lower prices than competitors 
 
P3Copy your neighbour
A、THERE’S no animal that symbolises rainforest diversity quite as spectacularlyas the tropical butterfly. Anyone lucky enough to see these creatures flitting between patches of sunlight cannot fail to be impressed by the variety of their
patterns. But why do they display such colourful exuberance? Until recently, this was almost as pertinent a question as it had been when the 19th-century naturalists, armed only with butterfly nets and insatiable curiosity, battled through the rainforests. These early explorers soon realised that although some of the butterflies’bright colours are there to attract a mate, others are warning signals. They send out a message to any predators: “Keep off, we’re poisonous.”And because wearing certain patterns affords protection, other species copy them. Biologists use the term “mimicry rings”for these clusters of impostors and their evolutionary idol.
 
B 、But here’s the conundrum. “Classical mimicry theory says that only a single ring should be found in any one area,”explains George Beccaloni of the Natural History Museum, London. The idea is that in each locality there should be just the one pattern that best protects its wearers. Predators would quickly learn to avoid it and eventually all mimetic species in a region should converge upon it. “The fact that this is patently not the case has been one of the major problems in mimicry research,”says Beccaloni. In pursuit of a solution to the mystery of mimetic exuberance, Beccaloni set off for one of the megacentres for butterfly diversity, the point where the western edge of the Amazon basin meets the foothills of the Andes in Ecuador. “It’s exceptionally rich, but comparatively well collected, so I pretty much knew what was there, says Beccaloni.”The trick was to work out how all the butterflies were organized and how this related to mimicry.”
 
C 、Working at the Jatun Sacha Biological Research Station on the banks of the Rio Napo, Beccaloni focused his attention on a group of butterflies called ithomiines. These distant relatives of Britain’s Camberwell Beauty are abundant throughout Central and South America and the Caribbean. They are famous for their bright colours, toxic bodies and complex mimetic relationships. “They can comprise up to 85 per cent of the individuals in a mimicry ring and their patterns are mimicked not just by butterflies, but by other insects as diverse as damselflies and true bugs,”says Philip DeVries of the Milwaukee Public Museum’s Center for Biodiversity Studies.
 
D 、Even though all ithomiines are poisonous, it is in their interests to evolve to look like one another because predators that learn to avoid one species will also avoid others that resemble it. This is known as Miillerian mimicry. Mimicry rings may also contain insects that are not toxic, but gain protection by looking likes a model species that is: an adaptation called Batesian mimicry. So strong is an experienced predator’s avoidance response that even quite inept resemblance gives some protection. “Often there will be a whole series of species that mimic, with varying degrees of verisimilitude, a focal or model species,”says John Turner from the University of Leeds. “The results of these deceptions are some of the most exquisite examples of evolution known to science.”In addition to colour, many mimics copy behaviours and even the flight pattern of their model species.
 
E 、But why are there so many different mimicry rings? One idea is that species flying at the same height in the forest canopy evolve to look like one another. “It had been suggested since the 1970s that mimicry complexes were stratified by flight height,”says DeVries. The idea is that wing colour patterns are camouflaged against the different patterns of light and shadow at each level in the canopy, providing a first line of defence against predators.”But the light patterns and wing patterns don’t match very well,”he says. And observations show that the insects do not shift in height as the day progresses and the light patterns change. Worse still, according to DeVries, this theory doesn’t explain why the model species is flying at that particular height in the first place.
 
F 、“When I first went out to Ecuador, I didn’t believe the flight height hypothesis and set out to test it,”says Beccaloni.”A few weeks with the collecting net convinced me otherwise. They really flew that way.”What he didn’t accept, however, was the explanation about light patterns. “I thought, if this idea really is true, and I can work out why, it could help explain why there are so many different warning patterns in any one place. Then we might finally understand how they could evolve in such a complex way.”The job was complicated by the sheer diversity of species involved at Jatun Sacha. Not only were there 56 ithomiine butterfly species divided among eight mimicry rings, there were also 69 other insect species, including 34 day-flying moths and a damselfly, all in a 200-hectare study area. Like many entomologists before him, Beccaloni used a large bag-like net to capture his prey. This allowed him to sample the 2.5 metres immediately above the forest floor. Unlike many previous workers, he kept very precise notes on exactly where he caught his specimens.
 
G 、The attention to detail paid off. Beccaloni found that the mimicry rings were flying at two quite separate altitudes. “Their use of the forest was quite distinctive,”he recalls. “For example, most members of the clear-winged mimicry ring would fly close to the forest floor, while the majority of the 12 species in the tiger-winged ring fly high up.”Each mimicry ring had its own characteristic flight height.
 
H 、However, this being practice rather than theory, things were a bit fuzzy. “They’d spend the majority of their time flying at a certain height. But they’d also spend a smaller proportion of their time flying at other heights,”Beccaloni admits. Species weren’t stacked rigidly like passenger jets waiting to land, but they did appear to have a preferred airspace in the forest. So far, so good, but he still hadn’t explained what causes the various groups of ithomiines and their chromatic consorts to fly in formations at these particular heights.
 
I 、Then Beccaloni had a bright idea. “I started looking at the distribution of ithomiine larval food plants within the canopy,”he says. “For each one I’d record the height to which the host plant grew and the height above the ground at which the eggs or larvae were found. Once I got them back to the field station’s lab, it was just a matter of keeping them alive until they pupated and then hatched into adults which I could identify.”
 

写作部分

 
小作文部分:静态柱状图
大作文部分:Some people think that companies and private individuals should pay to clear up the pollution they produced, the government should not pay for it, to what extent do you agree or disagree?
 

口语部分

 
重点题目:
part1
Gift
Rubbish
Walking
Jeans
Haircut
Borrow
Tea & coffee
Reading
Holiday
Perfume
Trip
Math
Pets
Making plans
part 2
A water activity / an outdoor activity you’d love to try
A prize you want to win
A historical period you are so interested in
A place where you love to read or write
A park/garden you like
A place that is full of colours
A person who can speak a foreign language very well
A person who encouraged you to achieve a goal
A person who likes to help others
A boring experience you had with someone
An unusual holiday/trip
A happy day you enjoyed with your friends 
 
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