雅思阅读:一文带你读懂,应如何结合因果逻辑来解题?


来源:   时间:2019-11-06 14:21:28

雅思阅读的题目针对文章内容出题,不考背景知识,因此绝大多数题都是对原文的同义改写。但是,即使文章内容被改得面目全非,句内或句间的逻辑关系(因果、转折、并列等)是不会变的。结合同学的错题反馈,本文分析下应如何结合因果逻辑来解题:
 
首先,标记题目中出现的因果逻辑词:
 
表“原因”
1.“原因” reason/factor/explain/explanation…
2.连词because/since/as/for/in that…
3.短语
as a result of/ result from/because of/thanks to/due to/owing to/ ascribe   to/ is linked to…
4.隐含表“原因”的短语:derive   from/stem from/be associated with…
表“结果”
1.“结果”result/outcome/effect/impact…
2.连词so
3.短语
 “因此” as a result/as a consequence/
therefore/thus/consequently…
“导致” result in/lead to/contribute to/give rise to…
4.隐含表“结果”的词/短语
induce/trigger/fuel/breed/be heightened by...
 
出现以上逻辑词,同学要理解和分析题目考的是句内还是句间的因果关系。
 
1.判断题
题目
The bus Paton rode in had poor ventilation because of broken fans.
原文
Or in Charlie Paton’s case, out of the rain. “I was in a bus in Morocco travelling through the desert,” he remembers. “It had been raining and the bus was full of hot, wet people. The windows steamed up and I went to sleep with a towel against the glass. When I woke, the thing was soaking wet. I had to wring it out. And it set me thinking, why was it so wet?”
(PASSAGE3 The Rainmaker,20191026大陆)
分析
通过“the bus was full of hot, wet people. The windows steamed up”,同学读到旅游巴车窗蒙上水汽,推断车上通风不好,误判答案TRUE。这些同学忘记了题目给出通风不好的具体原因。实际上,原文既没交代原因,也未提到broken fans。因此,题目所述因果关系“因为风扇坏了,所以Paton坐的旅游大巴通风不好”在原文中并不存在,正确答案应为NOT GIVEN.
 
2.选词填空
题目
People go to art museums because they accept the value of seeing an original work of art. But they do not go to museums to read original manuscripts of novels, perhaps because the availability of novels has depended on 27._____ for so long. (Test 2, Cambridge 10)
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原文
However, if Mona Lisa was a famous novel, few people would bother to go to a museum to read the writer's actual manuscript rather than a printed reproduction. This might be explained by the fact that the novel has evolved precisely because of technological developments that made it possible to print out huge numbers of texts, whereas oil paintings have always been produced as unique objects.
分析
题目:很少人会去博物馆读小说手稿,这是因为,长期以来,人们可依靠_____获得小说。
很多同学原文因果关系理解不到位,“小说的传承是由于技术的发展”,误选C或者I。但,文章提到没多少人会费工夫去博物馆读小说,他们倾向于读印刷版。这个现象是因为技术的发展使得大量的文本印刷成为可能。也就是说,批量生产让人们可得到小说的翻版,因此,很少人会去读小说手稿。选项中可概括because of technological developments that made it possible to print out huge numbers of texts这一原因的应该是B mass production.
 
3.单选题
题目
17  Protecting large areas of the sea from commercial fishing would result in
A practical benefits for the fishing industry.
B some short-term losses to the fishing industry.
C widespread opposition from the fishing industry.
D certain changes to techniques within the fishing industry.
(Test 8, Cambridge 12)
原文
By protecting large areas from commercial fishing, we could once more see what 18th-century literature describes: ①vast shoals of fish being chased by fin and sperm whales, within sight of the English shore. This policy would ②also greatly boost catches in the surrounding seas.
分析
前2个例题,题目和答案句均有明显的因果逻辑词,只要做好单句理解即可解题。而剑12这道选择题,题目虽有表结果的“result in”,但原文没有因果逻辑词帮助解题。因此,同学得有意识去理解句间隐含的因果关系,即“保护海洋免受商业捕捞”导致了___?原文提到保护海洋免受商业捕捞的影响,we could once more see我们可看到2个结果①大量鱼群被鲸鱼追逐,②极大提高周边海域的捕捞量。这一措施所带来的结果对当地渔业是好的,因此选A 对渔业有实际好处。
 
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