2020年11月7日雅思考情回顾!阅读“难”上热搜?


来源:   时间:2020-11-10 11:15:28

本场考试的全部难度几乎都集中在阅读部分,烤鸭们明显感觉到P1和P2的难度出现了错位,事实上,这种感觉非常准确——本场考试P1文章Voyage of Going - beyond the blue line 2,是一篇有两个版本P1难度和P3难度文章及配题的旧题;而本场P2文章Corporate Social Responsibility则正好相反,它同时有P1和P2难度的两种文章及配题,从数值上都可以看出两篇文章的实际难易。也正是这个原因导致了烤鸭们在时间分配上出现较大障碍,很多烤鸭抱怨P3文章没有时间看,更糟糕的是,阅读量需求较大的半句配对也在P3出现。
 

阅读部分

 
READING PASSAGE 1
Voyage of Going: beyond the blue line 2

 
A One feels a certain sympathy for Captain James Cook on the day in 1778 that he "discovered" Hawaii. Then on his third expedition to the Pacific, the British navigator had explored scores of islands across the breadth of the sea, from lush New Zealand to the lonely wastes of Easter Island. This latest voyage had taken him thousands of miles north from the Society Islands to an archipelago so remote that even the old Polynesians back on Tahiti knew nothing about it. Imagine Cook's surprise, then, when the natives of Hawaii came paddling out in their canoes and greeted him in a familiar tongue, one he had heard on virtually every mote of inhabited land he had visited. Marveling at the ubiquity of this Pacific language and culture, he later wondered in his journal: "How shall we account for this Nation spreading it self so far over this Vast ocean?"
 
B Answers have been slow in coming. But now a startling archaeological find on the island of Efate, in the Pacific nation of Vanuatu, has revealed an ancient seafaring people, the distant ancestors of today's Polynesians, taking their first steps into the unknown. The discoveries there have also opened a window into the shadowy world of those early voyagers. At the same time, other pieces of this human puzzle are turning up in unlikely places. Climate data gleaned from slow-growing corals around the Pacific and from sediments in alpine lakes in South America may help explain how, more than a thousand years later, a second wave of seafarers beat their way across the entire Pacific.
 
C "What we have is a first- or second-generation site containing the graves of some of the Pacific's first explorers," says Spriggs, professor of archaeology at the Australian National University and co-leader of an international team excavating the site. It came to light only by luck. A backhoe operator, digging up topsoil on the grounds of a derelict coconut plantation, scraped open a grave - the first of dozens in a burial ground some 3,000 years old. It is the oldest cemetery ever found in the Pacific islands, and it harbors the bones of an ancient people archaeologists call the Lapita, a label that derives from a beach in New Caledonia where a landmark cache of their pottery was found in the 1950s. They were daring blue-water adventurers who roved the sea not just as explorers but also as pioneers, bringing along everything they would need to build new lives - their families and livestock, taro seedlings and stone tools.
 
D Within the span of a few centuries the Lapita stretched the boundaries of their world from the jungle-clad volcanoes of Papua New Guinea to the loneliest coral outliers of Tonga, at least 2,000 miles eastward in the Pacific. Along the way they explored millions of square miles of unknown sea, discovering and colonizing scores of tropical islands never before seen by human eyes: Vanuatu, New Caledonia, Fiji, Samoa.
 
E What little is known or surmised about them has been pieced together from fragments of pottery, animal bones, obsidian flakes, and such oblique sources as comparative linguistics and geochemistry. Although their voyages can be traced back to the northern islands of Papua New Guinea, their language - variants of which are still spoken across the Pacific - came from Taiwan. And their peculiar style of pottery decoration, created by pressing a carved stamp into the clay, probably had its roots in the northern Philippines. With the discovery of the Lapita cemetery on Efate, the volume of data available to researchers has expanded dramatically. The bones of at least 62 individuals have been uncovered so far - including old men, young women, even babies - and more skeletons are known to be in the ground. Archaeologists were also thrilled to discover six complete Lapita pots; before this, only four had ever been found. Other discoveries included a burial urn with modeled birds arranged on the rim as though peering down at the human bones sealed inside. It's an important find, Spriggs says, for it conclusively identifies the remains as Lapita. "It would be hard for anyone to argue that these aren't Lapita when you have human bones enshrined inside what is unmistakably a Lapita urn."

\
  
F Several lines of evidence also undergird Spriggs's conclusion that this was a community of pioneers making their first voyages into the remote reaches of Oceania. For one thing, the radiocarbon dating of bones and charcoal places them early in the Lapita expansion. For another, the chemical makeup of the obsidian flakes littering the site indicates that the rock wasn't local; instead it was imported from a large island in Papua New Guinea's Bismarck Archipelago, the springboard for the Lapita's thrust into the Pacific. A particularly intriguing clue comes from chemical tests on the teeth of several skeletons. DNA teased from these ancient bones may also help answer one of the most puzzling questions in Pacific anthropology: Did all Pacific islanders spring from one source or many? Was there only one outward migration from a single point in Asia, or several from different points? "This represents the best opportunity we've had yet," says Spriggs, "to find out who the Lapita actually were, where they came from, and who their closest descendants are today."
 
G There is one stubborn question for which archaeology has yet to provide any answers: How did the Lapita accomplish the ancient equivalent of a moon landing, many times over? No one has found one of their canoes or any rigging, which could reveal how the canoes were sailed. Nor do the oral histories and traditions of later Polynesians offer any insights, for they segue into myth long before they reach as far back in time as the Lapita. "All we can say for certain is that the Lapita had canoes that were capable of ocean voyages, and they had the ability to sail them," says Geoff Irwin, a professor of archaeology at the University of Auckland and an avid yachtsman. Those sailing skills, he says, were developed and passed down over thousands of years by earlier mariners who worked their way through the archipelagoes of the western Pacific making short crossings to islands within sight of each other. Reaching Fiji, as they did a century or so later, meant crossing more than 500 miles of ocean, pressing on day after day into the great blue void of the Pacific. What gave them the courage to launch out on such a risky voyage?
 
H The Lapita's thrust into the Pacific was eastward, against the prevailing trade winds, Irwin notes. Those nagging headwinds, he argues, may have been the key to their success. "They could sail out for days into the unknown and reconnoiter, secure in the knowledge that if they didn't find anything, they could turn about and catch a swift ride home on the trade winds. It's what made the whole thing work." Once out there, skilled seafarers would detect abundant leads to follow to land: seabirds and turtles, coconuts and twigs carried out to sea by the tides, and the afternoon pileup of clouds on the horizon that often betokens an island in the distance. Some islands may have broadcast their presence with far less subtlety than a cloud bank. Some of the most violent eruptions anywhere on the planet during the past 10,000 years occurred in Melanesia, which sits nervously in one of the most explosive volcanic regions on Earth. Even less spectacular eruptions would have sent plumes of smoke billowing into the stratosphere and rained ash for hundreds of miles. It's possible that the Lapita saw these signs of distant islands and later sailed off in their direction, knowing they would find land. For returning explorers, successful or not, the geography of their own archipelagoes provided a safety net to keep them from overshooting their home ports and sailing off into eternity.
 
However they did it, the Lapita spread themselves a third of the way across the Pacific, then called it quits for reasons known only to them. Ahead lay the vast emptiness of the central Pacific, and perhaps they were too thinly stretched to venture farther. They probably never numbered more than a few thousand in total, and in their rapid migration eastward they encountered hundreds of islands - more than 300 in Fiji alone. Still, more than a millennium would pass before the Lapita's descendants, a people we now call the Polynesians, struck out in search of new territory.
 
Questions 1-7
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage?
In boxes 1-7 on your answer sheet, write YES, if the statement agrees with the views of the writer, write NO, if the statement contradicts the views of the writer, write NOT GIVEN, if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
  
1 Captain cook once expected the Hawaii might speak another language of people from other pacific islands.
2 Captain cook depicted number of cultural aspects of Polynesians in his journal.
3 Professor Spriggs and his research team went to the Efate to try to find the site of ancient cemetery.
4 The Lapita completed a journey of around 2,000 miles in a period less than a centenary.
5 The Lapita were the first inhabitants in many pacific islands.
6 The unknown pots discovered in Efate had once been used for cooking.
7 The urn buried in Efate site was plain as it was without any decoration.
 
1 YES
2 NO
3 NO
4 NOT GIVEN
5 YES
6 NOT GIVEN
7 NO
 
Questions 8-10
Complete the following summary of the paragraphs of Reading Passage, using NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the Reading Passage for each answer.Write your answers in boxes 8-10 on your answer sheet.
 
Scientific Evident found in Efate site
Tests show the human remains and the charcoal found in the buried um are from the start of the Lapita period. Yet the 8  covering many of the Efate site did not come from that area. Then examinations carried out on the 9  discovered at Efate site reveal that not everyone buried there was a native living in the area. In fact, DNA could identify the Lapita's nearest  present-days 10 .
 
8 rock
9 teeth
10 descendants
 
Questions 11-13
Answer the questions below.
Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER from the passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes 11-13 on your answer sheet.
What did the Lapita travel in when they crossed the oceans?
 
What did the Lapita travel in when they crossed the oceans? 11 
In Irwins's view, what would the Latipa have relied on to bring them fast back to the base? 12 
Which sea creatures would have been an indication to the Lapita of where to find land? 13 
 
11 canoes
12 (the) trade winds
13 seabirds and turtles
 
\
 
READING PASSAGE 2
Corporate Social Responsibility

 
Broadly speaking, proponents of CSR have used four arguments to make their case: moral obligation, sustainability, license to operate, and reputation. The moral appeal – arguing that companies have a duty to be good citizens and to “do the right thing” – is prominent in the goal of Business for Social Responsibility, the leading nonprofit CSR business association in the United States. It asks that its members “achieve commercial success in ways that honour ethical values and respect people, communities, and the natural environment. “Sustainability emphasises environmental and community stewardship.
 
A An excellent definition was developed in the 1980s by Norwegian Prime Minister Gro Harlen Brundtland and used by the World Business Council for Sustainable Development: “Meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” Nowadays, governments and companies need to account for the social consequences of their actions. As a result, corporate social responsibility (CSR) has become a priority for business leaders around the world. When a well-run business applies its vast resources and expertise to social problems that it understands and in which it has a stake, it can have a greater impact than any other organization. The notion of license to operate derives from the fact that every company needs tacit or explicit permission from governments, communities, and numerous other stakeholders to justify CSR initiatives to improve a company’s image, strengthen its brand, enliven morale and even raise the value of its stock.
 
B. To advance CSR. we must root it in a broad understanding of the interrelationship between a corporation and society. Successful corporations need a healthy society. Education, health care, and equal opportunity are essential lo a productive workforce. Safe products and working conditions not only attract customers but lower the internal costs of accidents. Efficient utilization of land, water, energy, and other natural resources makes business more productive. Good government, the rule of law, and property rights are essential for efficiency and innovation. Strong regulatory standards protect both consumers and competitive companies from exploitation. Ultimately, a healthy society creates expanding demand for business, as more human needs are met and aspirations grow. Any business that pursues its ends at the expense of the society in which it operates will find its success to be illusory and ultimately temporary. At the same time, a healthy society needs successful companies. No social program can rival the business sector when it comes lo creating the jobs, wealth, and innovation that improve standards of living and social conditions over time.
 
\
 
C. A company’s impact on society also changes over time, as social standards evolve and science progresses. Asbestos, now understood as a serious health risk was thought to be safe in the early 1900s, given the scientific knowledge then available. Evidence of its risks gradually mounted for more than 50 years before any company was held liable for the harms it can cause. Many firms that failed to anticipated the consequences of this evolving body of research have been bankrupted by the results. No longer can companies be content to monitor only the obvious social impacts of today. Without a careful process for identifying evolving social effects of tomorrow, firms may risk their very survival.
 
D. No business can solve all of society’s problems or bear the cost of doing so. Instead, each company must select issues that intersect with its particular business. Other social agendas are best left to those companies in other industries, NGOs, or government institutions that are better positioned to address them. The essential test  that should guide CSR is not whether a cause is worthy but whether it presents an opportunity to create shared value – that is, a meaningful benefit for society that is also valuable to the business. Each company can identify the particular set of societal problems that it is best equipped to help resolve and from which it can gain the greatest competitive benefit.
 
E. The best corporate citizenship initiatives involve far more than writing a check: They specify clear, measurable goals and track results over time. A good example is General Electronics’s program to adopt underperforming public high schools near several of its major U.S. facilities. The company contributes between $250,000 and $1 million over a five-year period to each school and makes in-kind donations as well. GE managers and employees take an active role by working with school administrators to assess needs and mentor or tutor students. In an independen study of Ion schools in the program between 1989 and 1999, nearly all showed significant improvement, while the graduation rate in four of the five worst performing schools doubled from an average of 30% to 60%. Effective corporate citizenship initiatives such as this one create goodwill and improve relations with local governments and other important constituencies. What’s more, GE’s employees feel great pride in their participation. Their effect is inherently limited, however. No matter how beneficial (he program is, it remains incidental to the company’s business, and the direct effect on GE’s recruiting and retention is modest.
 
F. Microsoft s Working Connections partnership with the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) is a good example of a shared-value opportunity arising from investments in context. The shortage of information technology workers is a significant constraint on Microsoft’s growth; currently, there are more than 450,000 unfilled IT positions in the United States alone. Community colleges, with an enrollment of 11.6 million students, representing 45% of all U.S. undergraduates, could be a major solution. Microsoft recognizes, however, that community colleges face special challenges: IT curricula are not standardized, technology used in classrooms is often outdated, and there are no systematic professional development programs to keep faculty up to date. Microsoft’s $50 million five-year initiative was aimed at all three problems. In addition to contributing money and products, Microsoft sent employee volunteers to colleges to assess needs, contribute to curriculum development, and create faculty development institutes. Microsoft has achieved results that have benefited many communities while having a direct-and potentially significant-impact on the company.
 
\
 
G. At the heart of any strategy is a unique value proposition: a set of needs a company can meet for its chosen customers that others cannot. The most strategic CSR occurs when a company adds a social dimension to its value proposition, making social impact integral to the overall strategy. Consider Whole Foods Market, whose value proposition is to sell organic, natural, and healthy food products to customers who are passionate about food and the environment. The company’s sourcing emphasises purchases from local farmers through each store’s procurement process. Buyers screen out foods containing any of nearly 100 common ingredients that the company considers unhealthy or environmentally damaging. The same standards apply to products made internally. Whole Foods’ commitment to natural and environmentally friendly operating practices extends well beyond sourcing. Stores are constructed using a minimum of virgin raw materials. Recently, the company purchased renewable wind energy credits equal to 100% of its electricity use in all of its stores and facilities, the only Fortune 500 company to offset its electricity consumption entirely. Spoiled produce and biodegradable waste are trucked to regional centers for composting. Whole Foods’ vehicles are being converted to run on biofuels. Even the cleaning products used in its stores are environmentally friendly. And through its philanthropy, the company has created the Animal Compassion Foundation to develop more natural and humane ways of raising farm animals. In short, nearly every aspect of the company’s value chain reinforces the social dimensions of its value proposition, distinguishing Whole Foods from its competitors.
 
Questions 14-20
Reading passage 2 has seven paragraphs, A-G
Choose the correct heading for each paragraph from the list of headings below.
Write the correct number, i-x, in boxes 14-20 on your answer sheet.
 
List of headings
i How CSR may help one business to expand
ii CSR in many aspects of a company’s business
iii A CSR initiative without a financial gain
iv Lack of action by the state of social issues
v Drives or pressures motivate companies to address CSR
vi The past illustrates business are responsible for future outcomes
vii Companies applying CSR should be selective
viii Reasons that business and society benefit each other
 
Questions 21-22
Complete the summary below.
Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage of each answer.
Write your answers in boxes 21-22 on your answer sheet.
The implement of CSR, HOW?
Promotion of CSR requires the understanding of interdependence between business and society. Corporations workers’ productivity generally needs health care, education, and given 21
Restrictions imposed by government and companies both protect consumers from being treated unfairly. Improvement of the safety standard can reduce the 22 of accidents in the workplace.
Similarly society becomes a pool of more human needs and aspirations.
 
Questions 23-26
Look at the following opinions or deeds (Questions 23-26) and the list of companies below.
Match each opinion or deed with the correct company, A, B or C.
Write the correct letter, A, B or C in boxes 23-26 on your answer sheet. NB You may use any letter more than once
23 The disposable waste
24 The way company purchases as goods
25 Helping the undeveloped
26 Ensuring the people have the latest information
A General Electronics
B Microsoft
C Whole Foods Market
 
\
 
14 v
15 viii
16 vi
17 vii
18 iii
19 i
20 ii
21 equal opportunity
22 internal costs
23 C
24 C
25 A
26 B
 
Passage 3
电影与绘画
题型:匹配+选择
 

听力部分

 
Part 1
主题:音乐俱乐部
题型:填空
参考答案:
1. information is on the database
2. the main types of music offered: rock and jazz
3. once a month
4. price for adult: 450
5. current member's number: 750
6. legal advice
7. recording 也有同学回忆为photo
8. rehearse in studio
9. address: kippax
10. doctor-talent@music.com
 
Part 2
主题:爬山景区
题型:选择+匹配
参考答案:
wet slippery
Comfortable weather
tracks are not crowded
stop to enjoy the view
greeting with the people descending
watch careful with the kids
部分答案乱序
 
Part 3
主题:艺术品鉴定
题型:选择+流程图匹配
参考答案:
21-24 选择
21. Why did John think Jackson Pollocks painting is fake
B. his work is complex
22. why initially John think 5 pounds is fake
C. lack of documentation
23. why international foundation reject 5 pounds?
A. the material applied
24. 题目缺失
B. scientists and artists can work together to evaluate the painting
 
25-30. 流程匹配表
25. use D. laser beam to scan and mark for 3D model of the building
26. use F. thermal-graph camera for different wall materials
27. space for holding H. glass windows
28. use E. radar detection as to find there are two walls
29. finding: inner wall is made of G. stone
30. use B. gamma ray for wall material extra information
 
Part 4
主题:英国智能建筑
题型:填空
参考答案:
31. law firm 
32. cigar
33. footprint
34. glass
35. light
36. nature
37. air-conditioning
38. lung
39. clubroom
40. city


延伸阅读

最新!2020泰晤士世界大学声誉排名发布:哈佛连续10年蝉联冠军!

来了!2020美国大学薪资排名,这些专业最有“钱”景!

一口气看完四大排行榜之日本大学哪家强!

热点关注

校区地址
近期出分情况