2020年12月20日雅思阅读考情回忆


来源:   时间:2020-12-22 10:25:30

2020年倒数第3场考试,本场听力和阅读都是旧题,听力题型组合很少见,P4全部为选择题;阅读除P3总体词汇量要求较高,但逻辑简单。
 

阅读

Passage1:如何识别撒谎者

难易度:一般
题型:判断+填空+选择
1-5 判断
6-9 待回忆
10-13 选择
 
Passage2: 大猩猩与人类习性的研究
 
难易度:难
题型:匹配+填空
 
Passage3: 植物传播种子的方式
 
难易度:一般
 
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passage2
The Culture of Chimpanzee

 
The similarities between chimpanzees and humans have been studied for years, but in the past decade researchers have determined that these resemblances run much deeper than anyone first thought.
 
For instance, the nut cracking observed in the Ta. Forest is far from a simple chimpanzee behavior; rather it is a singular adaptation found only in that particular part of Africa and a trait that biologists consider to be an expression of chimpanzee culture. Scientists frequently use the term "culture" to describe elementary animal behaviors- such as the regional dialects of different populations of songbirds-but as it turns out, the rich and varied cultural traditions found among chimpanzees are second in complexity only to human traditions.
 
During the past two years, an unprecedented scientific collaboration, involving every major research group studying chimpanzees, has documented a multitude of distinct cultural patterns extending across Africa, in actions ranging from the animals’ use of tools to their forms of communication and social customs. This emerging picture of chimpanzees not only affects how we think of these amazing creatures but also alters human beings’conception of our own uniqueness and hints at ancient foundations for extraordinary capacity for culture.
 
Homo sapiens and Pan troglodytes have coexisted for hundreds of millennia and share more than 98 percent of their genetic material, yet only 40 years ago we still knew next to nothing about chimpanzee behavior in the wild. That began to change in the 1960s, when Toshisada Nishida of Kyoto University in Japan and Jane Goodall began their studies of wild chimpanzees at two field sites in Tanzania. (Goodall’s research station at Gombe-the first of its kind-is more famous, but Nishida’s site at Mahale is the second oldest chimpanzee research site in the world.)
 
In these initial studies, as the chimpanzees became accustomed to close observation, the remarkable discoveries began. Researchers witnessed a range of unexpected behaviors, including fashioning and using tools, hunting, meat eating, food sharing and lethal fights between members of neighboring communities.
 
As early as 1973, Goodall recorded 13 forms of tool use as well as eight social activities that appeared to differ between the Gombe chimpanzees and chimpanzee populations elsewhere. She ventured that some variations had what she termed a cultural origin. But what exactly did Goodall mean by "culture"? According to the Oxford Encyclopedic English Dictionary, culture is defined as "the customs . . . and achievements of a particular time or people." The diversity of human cultures extends from technological variations to marriage rituals, from culinary habits to myths and legends. Animals do not have myths and legends, of course. But they do have the capacity to pass on behavioral traits from generation to generation, not through their genes but by learning. For biologists, this is the fundamental criterion for a cultural trait: it must be something that can be learned by observing the established skills of others and thus passed on to future generations
 
What of the implications for chimpanzees themselves? We must highlight the tragic loss of chimpanzees, whose populations are being decimated just when we are at last coming to appreciate these astonishing animals more completely. Populations have plummeted in the past century and continue to fall as a result of illegal trapping, logging and, most recently, the bushmeat trade. The latter is particularly alarming: logging has driven roadways into the forests that are now used to ship wild-animal meat-including chimpanzee meat-to consumers as far afield as Europe. Such destruction threatens not only the animals themselves but also a host of fascinatingly different ape cultures.
 
Perhaps the cultural richness of the ape may yet help in its salvation, however. Some conservation efforts have already altered the attitudes of some local people. A few organizations have begun to show videotapes illustrating the cognitive prowess of chimpanzees. One Zairian viewer was heard to exclaim, "Ah, this ape is so like me, I can no longer eat him. "
 
How an international team of chimpanzee experts conducted the most comprehensive survey of the animals ever attempted. Scientists have been investigating chimpanzee culture for several decades, but too often their studies contained a crucial flaw. Most attempts to document cultural diversity among chimpanzees have relied solely on officially published accounts of the behaviors recorded at each research site. But this approach probably overlooks a good deal of cultural variation for three reasons. First, scientists typically don’t publish an extensive list of all the activities they do not see at a particular location. Yet this is exactly what we need to know-which behaviors were and were not observed at each site. Second, many reports describe chimpanzee behaviors without saying how common they are; with- out this information, we can’t determine whether a particular action was a once-in-a-lifetime aberration or a routine event that should be considered part of the animals’ culture. Finally, researchers’ descriptions of potentially significant chimpanzee behaviors frequently lack sufficient detail, making it difficult for scientists working at other spots to record the presence or absence of the activities.
 
To remedy these problems, the two of us decided to take a new approach. We asked field researchers at each site for a list of all the behaviors they suspected were local traditions. With this information in hand, we pulled together a comprehensive list of 65 candidates for cultural behaviors.
 
Then we distributed our list to the team leaders at each site. In consultation with their colleagues, they classified each behavior in terms of its occurrence or absence in the chimpanzee community studied. The key categories were customary behavior (occurs in most or all of the able-bodied members of at least one age or sex class, such as all adult males), habitual (less common than customary but occurs repeatedly in several individuals), present (seen at the site but not habitual), absent (never seen), and unknown.
 
Questions 1-5
 
The Reading Passage has seven paragraphs 1-5.
Which paragraph contains the following information?
Write the correct letter, A-K, in boxes 1-5 on your answer sheet.
 
1   A problem of researchers on chimpanzee culture which are only based on official sources.
2   Design a new system by two scientists aims to solve the problem.
3   Reasons why previous research on ape culture is problematic.
4   Classification of data observed or collected.
5   An example that showing the tragic outcome of animals leading to an indication of the change in local people’s attitude in preservation.
 
Questions 6-10
 
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1?
In boxes 6-10 on your answer sheet, write
TRUE               if the statement is true
FALSE              if the statement is false
NOT GIVEN    if the information is not given in the passage
 
6   The research found that scientist can make chimpanzees possess the same complex culture as human.
7   Human and apes live together long ago and share most of their genetic substance.
8   Even Toshisada Nishida and Jane Goodall’s beginning studies observed many surprising features of civilized behaviors among chimpanzees.
9   Chimpanzees, like a human, have the ability to deliver cultural behaviors mostly from genetic inheritance.
10   For decades, researchers have investigated chimpanzees by data obtained from both unobserved and observed approaches.
 
Questions 11-14
 
Answer the questions below.
Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER from the passage for each answer.
 
11   When the unexpected discoveries of chimpanzee behavior start?
12   Which country is the researching site of Toshisada Nishida and Jane Goodall?
13   What did the chimpanzee have to get used to in the initial study?
14   What term can depict it than Jane Goodall found the chimpanzee used the tool in 1973?
 
Passage 1
1. H
2. J
3. I
4. K
5. G
 
6. NOT GIVEN
7. TRUE
8. TRUE
9. FALSE
10. FALSE
 
11. in the 1960s
12. Tanzania
13. (close) observation/ observers
14. (a) culture origin
 
passage3
How to Spot a Liar

 
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However much we may abhor it, deception comes naturally to all living things. Birds do it by feigning injury to lead hungry predators away from nesting young. Spider crabs do it by disguise: adorning themselves with strips of kelp and other debris, they pretend to be something they are not – and so escape their enemies. Nature amply rewards successful deceivers by allowing them to survive long enough to mate and reproduce. So it may come as no surprise to learn that human beings- who, according to psychologist Gerald Johnson of the University of South California, or lied to about 200 times a day, roughly one untruth every 5 minutes- often deceive for exactly the same reasons: to save their own skins or to get something they can’t get by other means.
 
But knowing how to catch deceit can be just as important a survival skill as knowing how to tell a lie and get away with it. A person able to spot falsehood quickly is unlikely to be swindled by an unscrupulous business associate or hoodwinked by a devious spouse. Luckily, nature provides more than enough clues to trap dissemblers in their own tangled webs- if you know where to look. By closely observing facial expressions, body language and tone of voice, practically anyone can recognise the tell-tale signs of lying. Researchers are even programming computers – like those used on Lie Detector -to get at the truth by analysing the same physical cues available to the naked eye and ear. “With the proper training, many people can learn to reliably detect lies,” says Paul Ekman, professor of psychology at the University of California, San Francisco, who has spent the past 15 years studying the secret art of deception.
 
In order to know what kind of Lies work best, successful liars need to accurately assess other people’s emotional states. Ackman’s research shows that this same emotional intelligence is essential for good lie detectors, too. The emotional state to watch out for is stress, the conflict most liars feel between the truth and what they actually say and do.
 
Even high-tech lie detectors don’t detect lies as such; they merely detect the physical cues of emotions, which may or may not correspond to what the person being tested is saying. Polygraphs, for instance, measure respiration, heart rate and skin conductivity, which tend to increase when people are nervous – as they usually are when lying. Nervous people typically perspire, and the salts contained in perspiration conducts electricity. That’s why  sudden  leap in skin conductivity indicates nervousness -about getting caught, perhaps -which makes, in turn, suggest that someone is being economical with the truth. On the other hand, it might also mean that the lights in the television. Studio are too hot- which is one reason polygraph tests are inadmissible in court. “Good lie detectors don’t rely on a single thing”  says Ekma ,but interpret clusters of verbal and non-verbal clues that suggest someone might be lying.”
 
The clues are written all over the face. Because the musculature of the face is directly connected to the areas of the brain that processes emotion, the countenance  can be a window to the soul. Neurological studies even suggest that genuine emotions travel different pathways through the brain than insincere ones. If a patient paralyzed by stroke on one side of the face, for example, is asked to  smile deliberately, only the mobile side of the mouth is raised. But tell that same person a funny joke, and the patient breaks into a full and spontaneous smile. Very few people -most notably, actors and politicians- are able to consciously control all of their facial expressions. Lies can often be caught when the liars true feelings briefly leak through the mask of deception. We don’t think before we feel, Ekman says. “Expressions tend to show up on the face before we’re even conscious of experiencing an emotion.”
 
One of the most difficult facial expressions to fake- or conceal, if it’s genuinely felt - is sadness. When someone is truly sad, the forehead wrinkles with grief and the inner corners of the eyebrows are pulled up. Fewer than 15% of the people Ekman tested were able to produce this eyebrow movement voluntarily. By contrast, the lowering of the eyebrows associated with an angry scowl can be replicated at will but almost everybody. “ If someone claims they are sad and the inner corners of their eyebrows don’t go up, Ekmam says, the sadness is probably false.”
 
The smile, on the other hand, is one of the easiest facial expressions to counterfeit. It takes just two muscles -the zygomaticus major muscles that extend from the cheekbones to the corners of the lips- to produce a grin. But there’s a catch. A genuine smile affects not only the corners of the lips but also the orbicularis oculi, the muscle around the eye that produces the distinctive “crow’s feet” associated with people who laugh a lot. A counterfeit grin can be unmasked if the corners of the lips go up, the eyes crinkle,  but the inner corners of the eyebrows are not lowered, a movement controlled by the orbicularis oculi that is difficult to fake. The absence of lowered eyebrows is one reason why the smile looks so strained and stiff.
 
Questions 1-5
 
Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in Reading Passage?
In boxes 1-5 on your answer sheet, write
YES - if the statement agrees with the information 
NO - if the statement contradicts the information 
NOT GIVEN - if there is no information on this
 
1  All living animals can lie.
Answer: YES    Locate 
2  Some people tell lies for self-preservation.
Answer: YES    Locate
3  Scientists have used computers to analyze which part of the brain is responsible for telling lies.
Answer: NOT GIVEN
4  Lying as a survival skill is more important than detecting a lie.
Answer: NO    Locate
5  To be a good liar, one has to understand other people's emotions.
Answer: YES    Locate
 
Questions 6-9
 
Choose the correct letter A, B, C or D.
Write your answers in boxes 6-9.
 
 6. How does the lie detector work?

A  It detects whether one's emotional state is stable.
B  It detects one’s brain activity level.
C  It detects body behavior during one's verbal response.
D  It analyses one's verbal response word by word.
Answer: C    Locate

7. Lie detectors can't be used as evidence in a court of law because

A  Lights often cause lie detectors to malfunction.
B  They are based on too many verbal and non-verbal clues.
C  Polygraph tests are often inaccurate.
D  There may be many causes of certain body behavior.
Answer: D    Locate

8. Why does the author mention the paralyzed patients?

A  To demonstrate how a paralyzed patient smiles
B  To show the relation between true emotions and body behavior
C  To examine how they were paralyzed
D  To show the importance of happiness from recovery
Answer: B    Locate

9. The author uses politicians to exemplify that they can

A  Have emotions.
B  Imitate actors.
C  Detect other people's lives.
D  Mask their true feelings.
Answer: D    Locate
 
Questions 10-13
Classify the following facial traits as referring to 

A sadness
B anger
C happiness
 
Write the correct letter A, B or C in boxes 10-13.
 
10  Inner corners of eyebrows raised
Answer: A    Locate
 
11  The whole eyebrows lowered
Answer: B    Locate
 
12  Lines formed around
Answer: C    Locate
 
13  Lines form above eyebrows
Answer: A    Locate
 
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