备考干货| SAT速读术 “no+名词”篇


来源:   时间:2017-12-20 10:56:53

和ACT阅读相比,SAT阅读在速度上的要求比ACT阅读稍微低点,但SAT阅读部分依然是很多SAT备考党们夺得高分路上的一大障碍,SAT阅读最重要的是理解,如何既提高SAT阅读速度又提高阅读理解准确率?沃邦SAT阅读教师朱老师为大家支招!

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如果你愿意,可以细读锻炼下思维,如果你不愿意,可以跳读直接看结论。
 
2016.05亚洲
There is no grievance that is a fit object of redress by mob law.  
你能快速读懂(速读)这句话吗?



它是在表达There is no grievance吗?
 
1
理解基础


针对no+名词,可以理解为not any +名词
举例:
I have no money.
=I do not have any money.
I have no choice.
=I don't have any choice.
注意:not 在句子位置上,转移到了动词上。
 
热身练习:
There’s absolutely no reason to get up early tomorrow morning.
There is no excuse.
There was no hospital in the town.
No student is to leave the room.
No job has more influence on the future of the world.
No letters survive from this early period.
That's my kind of holiday - no telephone, no TV and no worries.
He had no intention of paying the cash.

那么,There is no grievance that is a fit object of redress by mob law. 这句话等于There is not any grievance that is a fit object of redress by mob law.
 
现在我们看grievance that is a fit object of redress by mob law划横线部分是定语从句,功能是在限定grievance名词所指的外延,即缩小grievance所指对象的范围。
 
如果grievance用A表示; that is a fit object of redress by mob law用“B的”表示(注意,不能仅仅是“B“,必须包含“的”这个词。),那么,grievance that is a fit object of redress by mob law,用中文表示,就是B的A。
 
那么,There is not any grievance that is a fit object of redress by mob law. 这句话等于“任何一个B的(that is a fit object of redress by mob law) A(grievance) 都是不存在的。”
 
“任何一个B的A都是不存在的。”这在表达什么意思?
 
2
理解升级

 
任何一个B的A对象都是不存在的,等于在说,如果一个对象A是B的,那么,这个对象A不存在。
如果这个命题是真的,那么其逆否命题也是真的。
即如果一个A对象是存在的,那么这个A对象不是B的。
即任何一个存在的A, 都不是B的。
 
【请再下面读不懂时,回到这里反复看喔!】
 
好了,我们来看句子:
There is no grievance that is a fit object of redress by mob law.
=There is not any grievance that is a fit object of redress by mob law. 这句话等于“任何一个B的(that is a fit object of redress by mob law) A(grievance) 都是不存在的。”
 
作者说出这个观点的时候,其实在说:
 
任何一个存在的grievance都不是a fit object of redress by mob law。
 
我们回到原文语境:
1-“…nor that grievances may not rise…”(26行)
2-“If such arise, let proper legal provisions be made for with the least possible delay…”(33行)
 
这时,我们可以发现:
当说出There is no grievance that is a fit object of redress by mob law.    (36行)

作者的思维,我试着解构如下:
任何一个存在的grievance都不是a fit object of redress by mob law。既然任何一个存在的grievance都不是一个通过mob law去redress的合适对象, 那么,对于任何一个存在的grievance, 就不要通过mob law去redress了。
作者对mob law的态度是否定的。
grievance理解为“a cause of distress (as an unsatisfactory working condition) felt to afford reason for complaint or resistance”。
redress理解为“to remove the cause of (a grievance or complaint)”。
mob law理解为“control of a political situation by those outside the conventional or lawful realm, typically involving violence and intimidation”。
 
3
理解总结

 
1-   no+名词。
速读术: not any +名词,not移到动词。
 
2-  There is no B的A。
速读术:任何一个B的A是不存在的。
速读术:任何存在的A,都不是B的。

 
4
理解训练


“no+名词+定语从句”SAT真题句练习:
 
【同类训练】
2016.10北美
But here,more than ever, I feel the necessity of making myself clearly understood; for there is no subject on which the coarse and lawless fancies of our age have taken a freer range.
 
2017.5北美
Supposing women were to act upon the same principle of egotism, consulting their own inclinations, interest, and amusement only,(and there is no law of Nature which forbids them; none of any species but that which is framed by man;) what would be the consequences?
 
【升级训练----其实是no的迁移训练,尝试下喔】
2017.5北美
Woman is destined to pursue no path in which she does not find an enemy.
 
 2016.06亚洲
No belief which is contrary to truth can be really useful.
 
5
理解基础训练

 
也许有些读者觉得以上比较难,特设置基础训练哈:
 
“no+名词+不加定语从句”SAT真题句练习:
2017.05-亚洲
Henry felt it was flawed but correctable, while Pendleton felt that it had served no useful purpose.
 
2016.05亚洲
I mean to say no such thing. But I do mean to say, that, although bad laws, if they exist, should be repealed as soon as possible, still while they continue in force, for the sake of example, they
should be religiously observed.
 
2017.01北美
They included no means for reconciling differences between free states and slave states.
 
Douglas proposes changes to federal policies onslavery, but Lincoln argues that such changes would enjoy no popular support.
 
2017.05北美
Such a discovery would have no effect on Lithwick’s findings, because Lithwick’s research was restricted to planets with gaseous atmospheres.
 
 
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朱老师
沃邦SAT阅读教师,复旦大学英语语言与文学专业,师从过中国英语大家陆谷孙先生和中国教育大家冯恩洪先生,原上海名校建平高中国际部英语课程设计与实施老师,原中国教育部教育学会中国好课堂英语师训老师,中国高级中学英语执教认证,美国大学理事会英语培训认证。 目前,专注托福雅思SATACT等出国英语阅读的研究与培训,培训同时,以言传身教的方式培养学生:自学的能力,坚韧的精神,反思的品质。
 


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