沃邦名师3月10日亚太SAT考试考情速递


来源:   时间:2018-03-10 14:48:31

  今天上午,2018年美国高考SAT亚太首考结束,沃邦SAT教研组第一时间全方位回顾考情,为亚太地区最详细,最快,最准确,最权威,希望对本次考试的考生,以及准备参加今年5月亚太和8月北美的考生有所帮助。
 
  阅读本次篇章难度水平趋于正常,顺序类似于2017年8月北美出题,循证题词汇题图表题依旧主导学生作答水平。语法难度居中,考点符合常规,后两篇语义题居多,语篇题难度较上次12月亚洲较为容易。数学考试难度偏低,相较12月考试更强调对函数的透彻理解以及用数学知识解决实际问题的能力。作文难度居中偏简单。
 

  阅读部分

 
  第一篇
 
 
  文章概述:
 
  作者Ayana Mathis,原文出自于The Twelve Tribes of Hattie. This passage is set in 1923.
  文章主要内容:主人公Hattie到达费城火车站的所见所闻以及对该城市看法的转变;
  第一段:Hattie和她的Mother及Sisters坐了三十二小时的火车到达费城,费城火车站人山人海,Hattie被挤出车站,Sisters和Mother并没有跟上来;
  第二段:Hattie在火车站外看到费城街上景象,感慨自己可以在这座城市待下来,但内心仍然紧张不安;Hattie在人群中找Mother和Sisters,但是没有找到;
  第三段:Hattie看到一个黑人妇女向一个白人花商买花;
  第四段:黑人妇女不小心把花瓶打碎了,花摔在地上,Hattie认为一场冲突在即,街上的黑人应该都不会卷入这场冲突,但黑人妇女重新给了钱,买了花,这场冲突和平解决;
  第五段:Hattie看着街上黑人们的一举一动,内心改变了对这座城市的看法,决心留在这里;
 
  题目:
  1.主旨题Which choicecan best summarize the passage?
  2.目的题,考查文章第一段词组“roundas a marble in her mouth”和”a needle in her chest”的效果和目的;
  3.细节题,Hattie在车站和Mother及Sisters分开,对她造成了什么影响;
  4.词汇题,原文词汇是gained,选项词汇有reached, increased;
  5.Hattie第一次来到费城,她对费城的生活的态度是什么样的;
  6.上一题询证;
  7.黑人妇女和白人花商之间的冲突在即,Hattie认为many black people对此会是什么反应;
  8.上一题询证;
  9.目的题,文章最后一段话第一句Hattielooks more closely at the crowds on the street的作用;
  10.文章最后一段,文章将费城街上的四个谈笑的black girls和佐治亚街上的white girls做了怎样的对比;
 
  文章原文:
  THIRTY-TWO HOURS AFTER Hattie and her mother and sisters creptthrough the Georgia woods to thetrain station, thirty-two hours on hard seatsin the commotion of the Negro car, Hattie wasstartled from a light sleep by thetrain conductor’s bellow, “Broad StreetStation,Philadelphia!” Hattie clambered from the train,her skirt still hemmed with Georgia mud, thedream of Philadelphia round as amarble in her mouth and the fear of it a needle in her chest.Hattie and Mama,Pearl and Marion climbed the steps from the train platform up into the mainhallof the station. It was dim despite the midday sun. The domed roof arched.Pigeons cooed inthe rafters. Hattie was only fourteen then, slim as a finger.She stood with her mother andsisters at the crowd’sedge, the four of them waiting for a break in the flow of people sothey toomight move toward the double doors at the far end of the station. Hattiestepped intothe multitude. Mama called, “Come back! You’ll be lost in all those people. You’ll belost!” Hattie looked back in panic; she thought her mother was rightbehind her. The crowd wastoo thick for her to turn back, and she was bornealong on the current of people. She gainedthe double doors and was pushed outonto a long sidewalk that ran the length of the station.
  The main thoroughfare was congested with more people than Hattiehad ever seen in one place.The sun was high. Automobile exhaust hung in the airalongside the tar smell of asphaltsoftening in the heat and the sickening odorof garbage rotting. Wheels rumbled on the pavingstones, engines revved,paperboys called the headlines. Across the street a man in dirtyclothes stoodon the corner wailing a song, his hands at his sides, palms upturned.Hattieresisted the urge to cover her ears to block the rushing city sounds. Shesmelled the absenceof trees before she saw it. Things were bigger inPhiladelphia—that was true—and therewasmore of everything, too much of everything. But Hattie did not see apromised land in thistumult. It was, she thought, only Atlanta on a largerscale. She could manage it. But even asshe declared herself adequate to thecity, her knees knocked under her skirt and sweat rolleddown her back. Ahundred people had passed her in the few moments she’dbeen standing outside,but none of them were her mother and sisters. Hattie’s eyes hurt with the effort of scanningthe faces of the passersby.
  A cart at the end of the sidewalk caught her eye. Hattie had neverseen a flower vendor’scart. A white man sat on a stool with hisshirtsleeves rolled and his hat tipped forwardagainst the sun. Hattie set hersatchel on the sidewalk and wiped her sweaty palms on herskirt. A Negro womanapproached the cart. She indicated a bunch of flowers. The white manstood—he did not hesitate, his body didn’t contortinto a posture of menace—and took theflowers from abucket. Before wrapping them in paper, he shook the water gently from thestems.The Negro woman handed him the money. Had their hands brushed?
  As the woman with the flowers took her change and moved to put itin her purse, she upset threeof the flower arrangements. Vases and blossomstumbled from the cart and crashed on to thepavement. Hattie stiffened, waitingfor the inevitable explosion. She waited for the otherNegroes to step back andaway from the object of the violence that was surely coming. Shewaited for themoment in which she would have to shield her eyes from the woman andwhateverhorror would ensue. The vendor stooped to pick up the mess. The Negrowoman gestured
  apologetically and reached into her purse again, presumably to payfor what she’d damaged. Ina couple of minutes it was allsettled, and the woman walked on down the street with her nosein the paper coneof flowers, as if nothing had happened.
  Hattie looked more closely at the crowd on the sidewalk. TheNegroes did not step into thegutters to let the whites pass and they did notstare doggedly at their own feet. Four Negrogirls walked by, teenagers likeHattie, chatting to one another. Just girls in conversation,giggling and easy,the way only white girls walked and talked in the city streets ofGeorgia.Hattie leaned forward to watch them progress down the block. At last,her mother and sistersexited the station and came to stand next to her. “Mama,” Hattie said. “I’llnever go back.Never.”
 
  第二篇
 
 
  文章概述:
  双篇文章:
  文章大意:
  p1主要采取先抑后扬的手段:
  第一段讲印度的政府职责缺失,之前外来的统治不适合印度的风土人情,印度人民被课以重税。
  第二段画风一转,说其实印度未来还是有希望;
  第三段继续讲之前印度人民被侵略被统治,但是英国帮助其逃脱;
  第四段讲现在的政府虽然有犯一些错,但是还是为人民着想;
  p2
  第一段文章直接说 British ruined our country,认为英国只是利用来华丽的外衣来包装其私欲,采用愚民手段来麻痹印度人民。作者呼吁:应该认清事实,权利应该掌握在自己的手上。
 
  题目:
  1.问的是p1文章的main focus 是如何转移的。需要通读全文才能解题,但是题目难度不大:只要抓住段落大意和文章的逻辑词,就能解题:文章先抑后扬,先说印度政治状况混乱,后提到政府其实取得了较好成果。
  2.问原文何处支撑了“British unified India” 难度不大,只要将四个选项带入。就会发现原文有一句:(i see…dependent states)
  3.词汇题:attend 和哪个词意思接近:frequented / maintain/replaced/accompanied
  4.词汇题:charge 和哪个词意思接近:care/invasion/accusation/expense/
  5.问第二篇的段落大意:文章主旨体现非常清晰鲜明:the British ruined our country
  6.问印度人民对英国统治最初的态度:原文第二篇第3-5句话直接提现:supried ,即一开始认为英国是for their good,为他们着想。
  7.问英国是用何种方式来巩固它们在印度的统治?答案在文章第二段:通过愚民手段:fooled
  ignorance,blindness
  8.词汇题:business 和以下哪个词意思接近:objectives/likehood/movement
  9.问p2作者会如何看待p1作者所说的英国帮助实现印度国内的稳定性:p2作者立场鲜明,反对p1作者,认为只有权利在本国人手中才能实现稳定。
  10.问p2作者如何看p1作者所说的“some plan” 难度不大:作者立场很容易看出,reject 作者在第二段认为英国是利用华丽的外衣来实现一国私欲。
  11.上题循证题
 
  双篇第一篇文章原文:
  It is true, then, that there was too muchfoundation for the representations of those satirists and dramatists who heldup the character of the English Nabob to the derision and hatred of a formergeneration. It is true that some disgraceful intrigues, some unjust and cruelwars, some instances of odious perfidy and avarice, stain the annals of ourEastern Empire. It is true that the duties of government and legislation werelong wholly neglected or carelessly performed. It is true that when theconquerors at length began to apply themselves in earnest to the discharge oftheir high functions, they committed the errors natural to rulers who were butimperfectly acquainted with the language and manners of their subjects. It istrue that some plans, which were dictated by the purest and most benevolentfeelings, have not been attended by the desired success. It is true that Indiasuffers to this day from a heavy burden of taxation and from a defective systemof law. It is true, I fear, that in those states which are connected with us bysubsidiary alliance, all the evils of oriental despotism have too frequentlyshown themselves in their most loathsome and destructive form.
 
  [But nowadays its affairs are much improved, and still improving]
  [7a] All this is true. Yet in the historyand in the present state of our Indian Empire I see ample reason for exultationand for a good hope.
  [7b] I see that we have established orderwhere we found confusion. I see that the petty dynasties which were generatedby the corruption of the great Mahometan Empire, and which, a century ago, keptall India in constant agitation, have been quelled by one overwhelming power. Isee that the predatory tribes, which, in the middle of the last century, passedannually over the harvests of India with the destructive rapidity of ahurricane, have quailed before the valour of a braver and sterner race, havebeen vanquished, scattered, hunted to their strongholds, and either extirpatedby the English sword, or compelled to exchange the pursuits of rapine for thoseof industry.
  [7c] I look back for many years; and I seescarcely a trace of the vices which blemished the splendid fame of the firstconquerors of Bengal. I see peace studiously preserved. I see faith inviolablymaintained towards feeble and dependent states. I see confidence graduallyinfused into the minds of suspicious neighbours. I see the horrors of warmitigated by the chivalrous and Christian spirit of Europe. I see examples ofmoderation and clemency, such as I should seek in vain in the annals of anyother victorious and dominant nation. I see captive tyrants, whose treacheryand cruelty might have excused a severe retribution, living in security,comfort, and dignity, under the protection of the government which theylaboured to destroy.
  [7d] I see a large body of civil andmilitary functionaries resembling in nothing but capacity and valour thoseadventurers who, seventy years ago, came hither, laden with wealth and infamy,to parade before our fathers the plundered treasures of Bengal and Tanjore. Ireflect with pride that to the doubtful splendour which surrounds the memory ofHastings and of Clive, we can oppose the spotless glory of Elphinstone andMunro. I contemplate with reverence and delight the honourable poverty which isthe evidence of rectitude firmly maintained amidst strong temptations. Irejoice to see my countrymen, after ruling millions of subjects, aftercommanding victorious armies, after dictating terms of peace at the gates ofhostile capitals, after administering the revenues of great provinces, afterjudging the causes of wealthy Zemindars, after residing at the courts oftributary Kings, return to their native land with no more than a decentcompetence.
 
  第三篇
 
  文章概述:
  作者:Claire N. Spottiswoode
  题目:How Cooperation Defeats Cheats
 
  本篇文章的主旨是红嘴山鸦之间的合作对于它们遭到寄生虫入侵的影响。文章中谈到,红嘴山鸦之间的合作和寄生虫的入侵是相互作用的。合作容易让它们变成寄生虫的目标,与此同时,它们之间的合作也让它们更容易对抗寄生虫。在文中,作者也阐明了群体大小对于感染寄生虫几率的影响。越小的群体,感染几率越大,越大的群体,感染几率越小。在文章的最后一段,作者表明研究的结果虽然能够说明合作对于寄生物入侵的影响,但是暂时还不能揭开红嘴山鸦最初是如何进化出合作的特性的。
 
  题目:
  1.主旨题,问作者这篇研究的目的是什么。
  2.作者文章中收集的data有什么样的作用?
  3.词汇题:reflect在文中的意思。
  4.词汇题:favor在文中的意思。
  5.独立取证题:问那句话是文中作者提到的,群体数量对寄生物影响的证据。
  6.细节题:红嘴山鸦在繁殖中的特点
  7.目的题:最后一段的作用
  8.图表题,问从第一个图表能得出什么关于群体大小和寄生的关系。
  9.图表题,问从图表中能得出什么样的比对信息。
  10.图表题,问从第二个图表中能得出什么。
 
  文章原文:
  In the spring of 1879, Hermann Lau shot two white-winged choughs,Corcorax melanorhamphos, off their nest in Queensland, Australia. He watched asadditional choughs continued to attend the nest, proving that a cooperativegroup shared parental care ( 1). Since then, cooperatively breeding birds havehad a starring role in efforts to explain the evolution of complex animalsocieties. We now know that “helpersat-the-nest” who forgo reproduction areoften relatives of the breeding pair. Genetic payoff is, thus, one of severaladvantages that helpers can gain from their super? cially altruistic behavior (2). On page 1506 of this issue, Feeney et al. ( 3) show that collective defenseagainst brood parasites (see the ? gure) can enhance such bene? ts ofcooperation. Why do some bird species cooperate and others do not? Globalanalyses have shown that cooperative breeding (now known from 9% of species) isassociated with a slow pace of life (characterized by high survival rates andlow turnover of breeding territories) ( 4), monogamy (which facilitates kinselection within families) ( 5), and unpredictable environments (such as aridzones) that might favor cooperation as a bet-hedging strategy ( 6). But thesefactors often fail to predict the incidence of cooperation among relatedspecies or within geographical regions ( 7). Feeney et al.’s study is built onthe premise that brood parasitism—reproductive cheating by species such ascuckoos and cowbirds, which exploit other birds to raise their young—is asevere selection pressure on their hosts’ breeding strategies. Parasitizedparents typically not only lose their current offspring but also waste a wholebreeding season raising a demanding impostor. The best way to avoid parasitismis to repel adult parasites from the nest. Feeney et al. show that socialitycan be pivotal to this process. The authors begin by unfolding a new map. Usingdata compiled by BirdLife International, they show that the global distributionof cooperatively breeding birds overlaps strikingly with that of broodparasites. This overlap need not re? ect a causal relationship:
  The same unpredictable environments thatfavor cooperation could also favor alternative breeding strategies such asparasitism. However, the authors go on to show that even within geographicalregions rich in both parasites and cooperators—Australia and southern Africa—cooperativebreeders are much more likely than noncooperative species to be targeted bybrood parasites. To determine the reasons for this correlation, Feeney et al.studied cooperative breeding in superb fairy-wrens (Malurus cyaneus) inAustralia. Horsfield’s bronze-cuckoos (Chalcites basalis) should bene? t fromtargeting larger groups of fairy-wrens because more helpers mean faster chickgrowth. Yet, data from a 6-year field study show that in practice, cuckoosrarely experience this advantage, because larger groups of fairywrens much moreeffectively detect and repel egg-laying intrusions by cuckoo females,mobilizing group defenses with a cuckoospeci? c alarm call. Thus, cooperationand parasitism could reciprocally in? uence one another: Cooperators might bemore attractive targets because they make better foster parents, but once
  exploited by parasites, they are alsobetter able to ? ght back, helping cooperation to persist ( 8). Feeney et al. ?nd that superior anticuckoo defenses in larger groups account for 0.2 moreyoung ? edged per season on average than smaller groups—a substantial boostgiven the fairy-wrens’ low annual fecundity. These results show convincinglythat defense against brood parasites augments the bene? ts of helping, promotingthe persistence of cooperation. But as the authors note, they cannot revealwhat caused cooperation to evolve initially. Brood parasitism alone cannotresolve the question of why some birds breed cooperatively. For example,cooperative king? shers and bee-eaters are heavily parasitized in Africa butnot in Australasia, showing that other advantages of helping behavior are suf?cient for cooperation to persist. But we should take parasitism seriously as animportant force in a cooperative life. Indeed, it may provide a mechanismcontributing to the previously discovered global correlates of cooperation (4–6). Some insight into the likely order of evolution might come from furthercomparative predictions. For instance, if cooperation arose fi rst as a defenseagainst parasitism, cooperators may be most prevalent among hosts that relyheavily on repelling adult parasites, rather than on antiparasite strategies atlater reproductive stages, such as egg or chick discrimination ( 9). Incontrast, if parasites target existing cooperators because they providesuperior care, this should be especially true of parasites whose chicks havethe most pressing needs—for instance, those in parasitic families with largebody size relative to their hosts or those whose chicks do not kill host youngand therefore must share their foster parents’ care. Could there be a similarassociation between cooperation and parasitism among other highly socialanimals? Cooperation in mammals clearly persists irrespective of parasitism, giventhat there are no known brood-parasitic mammals (perhaps because it would bediffi cult for a mammal to insert live young into another’s care). Butrepelling parasitic egg-laying intrusions is crucial to many hosts of sociallyparasitic insects and has shaped sophisticated adaptations and counterdefensesfor and against brute force and secrecy ( 10). It will be fascinating toexplore how selection for antiparasitic defense has interacted with monogamyand defensible resources as forces favoring kin-selected cooperation ininvertebrates, touching on an active debate in evolutionary biology. Answers tosuch comparative questions will ultimately be limited by our knowledge ofnatural history. The work by Feeney et al. is testament to the evolutionaryinsights enabled by careful long-term fi eld studies, together with thecumulative legacy of those naturalists who made the unglamorous effort torecord and publish observations of real animals in real places.
 
 
  第四篇
 
  文章概述:
  文章讨论了人们对于工作截止日期的思维意识,先给出了人们做事情的四个阶段,而通常人们开始工作并意识到截止日期必须是要将任务与现在联系起来的时候,随后利用到某大学研究团队的实验进一步阐释,第一个实验研究发现同年存款为截止日期比下一年存款为截止日期更容易使人们开始开户的行为,同样第二个实验验证当截止日期和工作时间有类似特征的时候不容易唤醒大家开始工作的意识。随后文章给了一个关于deadline的实验对比图表。
 
  题目:
  1.文章主旨题
  2.信息题,问在开始工作前人们最关注concern什么
  3.循证题,对应前一题
  4.词汇题,问drive的意思
  5.信息题,问任务也很有可能被和当下联系起来即便在遥远的将来
  6.循证题,对应前一题
  7.推断题,作者提及日期的arbitrary是为了暗示什么
  8.目的题,最后一段的作用是什么
  9.图表题,问哪一个值接近人们对于deadline的平均速率
  10.图表题,问图表与文章第一个存款实验的区别
 
  文章原文:
  IF YOU wantsomething done, the saying goes, give it to a busy person. It is an odd way toguarantee hitting deadlines. But a paper recentlypublished in the Journal of Consumer Research suggestsit may, in fact, be true—as long as the busy person conceptualises the deadlinein the right way.
  Yanping Tu ofthe University of Chicago and Dilip Soman of the University of Toronto examinedhow individuals go about both thinking about and completing tasks. Previousstudies have shown that such activity progresses through four distinct phases:pre-decision, post-decision (but pre-action), action and review. It is thoughtthat what motivates the shift from the decision-making stages to thedoing-something stage is a change in mindset.
  Human beings area deliberative sort, weighing the pros and cons of future actions and remainingopen to other ideas and influences. However, once a decision is taken, the mindbecomes more "implemental" and focuses on the task at hand. “Themindset towards ‘where can I get a sandwich’,” explains Ms Tu, “is moreimplemental than the mindset towards ‘should I get a sandwich or not?’"
  Ms Tu and DrSoman advise in their paper that "the key step in getting things done isto get started." But what drives that? They believe the key that unlocksthe implemental mode lies in how people categorise time. They suggest thattasks are more likely to be viewed with an implemental mindset if an imposed deadlineis cognitively linked to "now"—a so-called like-the-presentscenario. That might be a future date within the same month or calendar year,or pegged to an event with a familiar spot in the mind's timeline (being givena task at Christmas, say, with a deadline of Easter). Conversely, they suggest,a deadline placed outside such mental constructs (being"unlike-the-present") exists merely as a circle on a calendar, and assuch is more likely to be considered deliberatively and then ignored until thelast minute.
  To flesh outthis idea, the pair carried out five sets of tests, with volunteers rangingfrom farmers in India to undergraduate students in Toronto. In one test,the farmers were offered a financial incentive to open a bank account and makea deposit within six months. The researchers predicted those approached in Junewould consider a deadline before December 31st as like-the-present. Thoseapproached in July, by contrast, received a deadline into the next year, andwere expected to think of their deadline as unlike-the-present. The distinctionworked. Those with a deadline in the same year were nearly four times morelikely to open the account immediately as those for whom the deadline lay inthe following year.  Arbitrary though calendars may be in dividing uptime's continuous flow, they influence the way humans think about time.
  The effect canmanifest itself in even subtler ways. In another set of experiments,undergraduate students were given a calendar on a Wednesday and were asked tosuggest an appropriate day to carry out certain tasks before the followingSunday. The trick was that some were given a calendar with all of the weekdayscoloured purple, with weekends in beige (making a visual distinction between aWednesday and the following Sunday). Others were given a calendar in whichevery other week, Monday to Sunday, was a solid colour (meaning that aWednesday and the following Sunday were thus in the same week, and in the samecolour). Even this minor visual cue affected how like- or unlike-the-presentthe respondents tended to view task priorities.
  These and otherbits of framing and trickery in the research support the same thesis: thatmaking people link a future event to today triggers an implemental response,regardless of how far in the future the deadline actually lies. If the journeyof 1,000 miles starts with a single step, the authors might suggest that youtake that step before this time next week.
 
 
  第五篇
 
 
  文章概述:
  ancient magma plumbing found buried below moon’s largest dark point
  Eric Hand
  2014 American Association for Advanced Science
  内容:
  月球最大的圆形暗点oceanus procellarum下面找到了长方形的地貌,有冷却的岩浆等痕迹,很像地球的裂谷rift valley,证明月球很久以前也是有地址和岩浆活动的
  OP这个暗点原来认为是陨石撞击造成的盆地,但是长方形地貌的发现反驳了这个idea,因为盆地不可能有棱角
  NASA发了一对飞船GRAIL可以采集地貌细微的变化以及分析密度,提供了信息个hannah andrews这个科学家和她的团队。
  OP这个暗点地区有大量的辐射粒子,可以释放大量的热量。在冷却之后,地壳会开裂,地幔中的岩浆会溢出来,然后慢慢的形成了暗点,多出来的岩浆冷却后加大了该地区的重量,导致下沉形成盆地状的地貌。
  宇宙中有很多相似的情况,作者距离了一些,比如土星的卫星。
  最后另一个科学家表扬了hannah团队的贡献,但是仍旧问题没解决,比如为什么却只有进地球的一侧出现了OP和长方形地貌,而月球其他的地方虽然有相似的条件却没有这种地貌。
 
  题目:
  1. 全文的主要目的是什么? 选择月球上新的发现质疑之前的假设理论
  2. 为什么作者说发现新的长方形地貌的时候还要提及 geologic plumbing sysyem?是为了进一步说明该地域的地址形态
  3. Hannah是如何评价之前的陨石撞击导致盆地理论的
  4. NASA飞船GRAIL给Hannah团队提供了什么样的帮助
  5. GRAIL提供的信息和什么有关
  6. Hannah对于信息后的分析如何评价
  7. 寻证题
  8. 结合以上内容,Dark Spot到底应该是如何形成的
  9. 为什么一开始认定OP是陨石冲击形成的
  10. 寻证题
  11. 作者为什么给出宇宙中一些其他天体的例子,比如土星的卫星.
  文章原文:
  Ancient magma plumbing found buried below moon'slargest dark spot
  By Eric HandOct. 1, 2014 ,1:00 PM
  Scientists have found a nearly squarepeg underneath a round hole—on the moon. Several kilometers below OceanusProcellarum, the largest dark spot on the moon’s near side, scientists havediscovered a giant rectangle thought to be the remnants of a geologicalplumbing system that spilled lava across the moon about 3.5 billion years ago.The features are similar to rift valleys on Earth—regions where the crust iscooling, contracting, and ripping apart. Their existence shows that the moon,early in its history, experienced tectonic and volcanic activity normallyassociated with much bigger planets.
  “We’re realizingthat the early moon was a much more dynamic place than we thought,” saysJeffrey Andrews-Hanna, a planetary scientist at the Colorado School of Mines inGolden and lead author of a new study of the Procellarum’s geology. Thediscovery also casts doubt on the decades-old theory that the circularProcellarum region is a basin, or giant crater, created when a large asteroidslammed into the moon. “We don’t expect a basin rim to have corners,”Andrews-Hanna says.
  The work isbased on data gathered by GRAIL (Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory), apair of NASA spacecraft that orbited the moon in 2012. Sensitive to tinyvariations in the gravitational tug of the moon, GRAIL mapped densityvariations below the surface (because regions of higher density produceslightly higher gravitational forces). Below known impact basins, GRAIL foundthe expected ringlike patterns, but underneath the Procellarum region, themysterious rectangle emerged. “It was a striking pattern that demanded anexplanation,” Andrews-Hanna says.
 
  Scientistsalready know that the Procellarum region is rich in radioactive elements thatbillions of years ago would have produced excess heat. The study team theorizesthat as this region cooled, the rock would have cracked in geometricalpatterns, like honeycomb patterns seen on Earth in basalt formations, but on amuch larger scale. In a study published today in Nature, the researcherspropose that these cracks eventually grew into rift valleys, wheremagma from the moon’s mantle welled up and pushed apart blocks of crust. Lava spilledout and paved over the Oceanus Procellarum, creating the dark spot that is seentoday. The extra weight of this dense material would have caused the wholeregion to sink slightly and form the topographic low that has made theProcellarum seem like a basin.
  With thediscovery, the moon joins Earth, Mars, and Venus as solar system bodies withmapped examples of rifting. There are also similar features near the south poleof Enceladus, the moon of Saturn that is spewing water into space from cracksin an ice shell.
  Andrews-Hannaand colleagues have made a good case, says Herbert Frey, a planetary scientistat NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, even though thenewly described features are surprising. The moon is not big enough to have thesame strong convective cooling process that Earth has in its interior, heexplains, and ordinarily convection is one of the main mechanisms thought tolead to large-scale rifting. So just what caused the rifting remains unclear.“It just means the moon continues to surprise us,” he says. Frey adds that aremaining mystery is why the rectangular features were found only beneathOceanus Procellarum. Even if the rifting is explained by the excess radioactiveelements, there is still no definitive explanation for why only the near sideof the moon ended up enriched.
  The discoverycould also be a death knell for the impact theory for Oceanus Procellarum, anidea first put forth in the early 1970s. A basin there would have been thelargest on the moon—larger than the South Pole–Aitken Basin—and second in thesolar system only to the Borealis Basin on Mars, which covers the planet’sentire northern hemisphere.
  RyosukeNakamura, a researcher at the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Scienceand Technology in Tsukuba, Japan, is still not convinced that an impact can beruled out. In 2012, he and his colleagues published a paper in NatureGeosciencethat found compositional evidence for an impactwithin Procellarum—a type of pyroxene mineral that is found in other, knownimpact basins such as South Pole–Aitken and is associated with the melting orexcavation of mantle rock from an asteroid impact.
  In response tothe current study, Nakamura says that the features in the southwestern cornerof the Procellarum region look to be circular rather than rectangular, andstill consistent with an impact. But Frey, who has long been skeptical of theimpact theory, says that the features are as clear as day, and not what you’dexpect underneath a basin. “That looks like a rectangle to me.”
 

  语法部分

 
  第一篇
 
  文章概述:
  Vik Muniz’sExtraordinary Ordinary Art
  第一段:Vik到Caribbean Island旅行,认识了当地的小孩,看到了他们勤劳的父母,认为应当重视他们辛勤的劳动成果;
  第二段:Vik用特殊的材料sugar,制作了一个portrait即Sugar Children;他的作品在纽约现代博物馆展览,自Vik’s career as aphotographer takes off;
  第三段:Vik又重新创作了一些著名的画作,其中包括达芬奇的Last Supper;
  第四段:Vik作品的意义,让人们重新认识一些artwork并了解the world aroundthem;
 
  题目:
  1.句子结构考点:fragment:缺主句类型。while句式标点考查;
  2.名词单复数:只要细心就能做对。parents和labors数的对应;
  3.第二段段落首句:哪一个句子introduce的接下来的信息:需要进行一些总结归纳;
  4.平行结构:and并列句式中动词形式的选择,只要找准平行关键词和平行的动词基本不会有问题;
  5.代词,需要理解原文,看此处逻辑语义。指示前半句sugar应该选用的物主代词;
  6.插入语标点,需要分析句子结构,通读原句整句话。in its 1917前后的标点;
  7.句子插入题,第三段段首是否应插入句子及其原因;
  8.考查逻辑连接,第三段第一句话和第二句话应该如何连接,原文连接词是in contrast;
  9.词汇意思重复,famous和well-known意思重复;
  10.sentence combination,主语相同的两个句子的合并;
  11.段首句选择,考查对最后一段段落大意判断并选出段首句子;
 
 
  第二篇
 
  文章概述:
  文章大意:
  第一段讲社区在投资艺术项目的时候,其实也会考虑艺术对人们生活品质的提高;而艺术其实反过来能促进经济;
  第二段讲:在社区内:艺术机构是消费者:购买物资;同时也是雇主:创造就业机会;
  第三段讲:举办艺术节等即可以促进当地经济:当地人和旅客都会拉动经济;
  第四段讲:因为艺术的以上好处:所以社区更应该资助艺术项目。
 
  题目:
  1.选择合适的代词,考点比较常规,主要是需要回到原文读语义,应该对应的是communities
  2.寻找段中的过渡句,上面写的是社区认为对艺术的资助其实是一种投资,后文讲的是这种投资会带来回报。关键词investment 联系了上下文。
  3.考察名词单复数和’s 的应用,考点难度正常。只要细心就能做对。
  4.考察的是词汇的style and tone :pitch in/fully and totally involved/play a role/
  5.逻辑词考点:however/furthermore/for instance/in other words
  6.句子结构考点,很多学生的易错点:run-on 两个完整句子不能用逗号隔开。all of which 的用法。
  7.固定搭配:be likely to 难度不大。
  8.图表题:迷惑性比较大,图表数据比较简单,但是有迷惑性。需要结合图表下面的描述。
  9.结合图表题的语义题:问哪个选项能更好的支撑艺术机构对当地经济的促进。
  10.并列结构和主谓一致,spending 是句子主语,support 是其中一个谓语和contribute并列
  11.合并句子题,考点简单,选择最简洁的就可以了.。
 
 
  第三篇
 
 
  文章概述:
  本篇语法的内容和医疗领域里的primarycare有关。作者提到,primarycare的专家不足是医疗领域里很严重的一个问题。但是药物学家可以很好的作为一个补充。除了在传统领域为人们和医疗事业做出贡献,药物学家还可以跨界,进行一些primarycare领域的工作。作者在文中举出了一些事实来表明药物学家可以做到的事情,在文章尾段,谈到谈到了法律上对于药物学家对pimarycare领域提供帮助的制约,并且呼吁人们让药物学家更多地参与到primarycare 中来。文章的难度不是很高,修辞部分题目理解起来相对容易。
 
  题目:
  1. 逻辑连接题。题目的出题位置为递进强调的逻辑,所以选择to makematters worse.
  2.修辞类主旨题。题目出题位置是药物学家能做到的事情。题干的要求是让学生贴合主旨作答。所以此题应该做完整篇文章后再最后解决。答案为药物学家能很好地补充primaycare 领域的缺失。
  3.修辞类题目。题目要求再给出一个理由,表明药物学家能提供的好处。前面的理由是可以节约患者的金钱成本,选择可以让患者节约时间,不用走多余的路程。
  4.词汇题。empower
  5.语从句中that的省略。原句中的句子是tasktraditionally performed by…..task后的that 省略。
  6.考查插入语。选项中考察学生对于逗号和破折号构成插入语的形式。选择用逗号构成。
  7.时态。考查学生对于时态一致性的理解。需要结合上下文的时态作答。
  8.代词。考查学生对于代词指代是否明晰的掌握。
  9.句子衔接。考查学生对于句子连接的掌握,和冒号及分号的使用方法。考察点是两个完整的句子,且后句不对前句构成解释说明。应该用分号连接。
  10.主旨题。需要扣住药物学家的重要作用。
  11.简洁原则。选择 innovative way。
 
  原文出处:http://science.sciencemag.org/content/342/6165/1452
 
 
  第四篇
 
  文章概述:
  科学家一直对地球上海洋的形成存有疑问。由于在地球早期,地表温度太高,不可能有水存在,以往的观点认为地球上的海洋是由于结冰的彗星与地球碰撞后将水带到了地球。但近年来随着R物质的发现,科学家形成了新的观点——地球上的一部分水可能来自地球内部。
  R物质由很多transition zones组成,transitionzones是由上下层地幔相遇而形成的。地幔中有1.5%的矿物质含有水。即使早年地表温度很高,地幔中矿物质所含有的水也可以形成地球上所有的海洋。科学家认为transition zones是water reservoir,这个发现说明地球上的水很有可能来自于地球内部。
 
  题目:
  1.标点:宾语从句标点符号:wonder how后面标点用句号。
  2.例子支撑题:哪个选项可以支持icy comet与地球碰撞形成海洋。原文前一句论点清晰
  3.主语谓语单复数一致。难度比较小。discoveries have…
  4 插入语标点符号:需要通读句子,分析清楚句子结构:at high temperatures and pressures后面符号
  5.哪个选项可以总结第二段。第二段主要讲R这个物质的发现可以支持地球上的水来自内部。
  6.过渡句,引出后文。后文大意较好总结:即R含有较多的水。
  7.考察句子结构和句间逻辑,涉及fragment,sentence,so,therefore,while
  8.冗余。high temperature和heat重复
  9.句子结构考察:两个句子连接,只能有一个连词。although和but不能连用
  10.单词题。undergo process
  11.总结句,题干信息很具体,只要回去读第一段,基本能抓住意思。哪句引文可以支持第一段提出的观点。地球海洋中的水可能来自地球内部。
 

  数学部分
 

  这次数学考试难度偏低,一次函数,二次函数,指数函数和方程组解的个数等基础知识点仍然上占据着最大篇幅。
  统计部分一直都是sat考试的一大难点。然后此次考试并没有对因果关系的确立和confidence level等与AP统计擦边的知识点进行考察,重点放在了mean和median的计算以及散点图的理解上。
  应用题考察较全面,汽油问题考察从路程计算汽油,压强问题考察了从压强计算压力,总的来说,SAT数学越来越强调应用数学知识解决实际问题的能力。
 
  非计算器部分:
  1.方程组解的个数。3x+5y=5;cx+10y=12没有解,问c的值。
  2.指数函数。y=540000(20/21)^20t,其中t代表分钟,y代表fuel,问20/21代表什么。
  3.x-4=(x+2)^(0.5),求x
  4.一次函数过(5,0),(0,10)求对应的直线方程。
  5.二次函数交点式是y=(x-a)(x-b),问(a+b)/2代表了什么。
 
  计算器部分:
  1.选择某小学二年级男生作为样本,统计结果也只能推广到该小学二年级男生。
  2.三角形两条边为7和13,13是最长的边,问另一条边是多少。
  3.p=7c-40,p代表profits,c代表carvingstones数目,问7代表什么含义。
  4.汽油问题。一辆车40milesper hour, 25miles per gallon.问这辆车开了75分钟需要用多少汽油。
  5.压强问题。单位面积大气压是14.7,问30个单位面积下压力为多少。这道题没有给出压力和压强的数学关系,对物理关系不熟悉的同学要根据单位判断压力和压强的数学关系。
  6.因式定理。多项式与x轴交点为-2,1,0,3,问下面哪个是多项式的factor.
  7.二次函数常数项的含义。
  8.散点图:对于横坐标为median的点,其纵坐标是多少。
  9.如果想刻画不同数目的班级占总班级数的比例,要用什么图表。graph plot.
  10.去掉outlier会怎么影响均值和median.
 

  写作部分

 
  这篇文章最初发表在2013年10月的《华盛顿邮报》。题材上来说,与OG6那篇 Lovely Stones有些相似,但论述方式上比较简单。
 
  这篇文章可谓“饱醮情感” “emotionally-charged”,考生不妨按沿着“情感线”去论述作者是怎样组织材料,一步步证明问题的严重性,同时赢得读者支持的。
 
  1 Egypt’s future lies in its history,particularly its archaeological history. For hundreds of years the mystery andwonders of the pyramids, the sphinx and the Valley of the Kings have attractedvisitors from around the world. Tourism is the lifeblood of Egypt’s economy andtouches the lives of most Egyptians, whether they work as tour guides,restaurant owners, craftsmen or bus operators. Egypt’s history holds theprosperity of the country’s future generations, including that of youths — morethan 40 million Egyptians are age 30 or younger — who are seekingopportunities.
 
  首先作者直白地告诉了读者历史文物对埃及的埃及的重要意义—涉及民生的旅游业。 作者这样写就能引起读者对这个话题的重视,同时对埃及经济的同情。
 
  The author explicitly point out theimportance of archaeological history not only to the preservation of historyfor the entire humanity but also a more practical reason---the archaeologicalhistory is “lifeblood” of Egypt’s economy
 
  关键词: raise awareness, establish theimportance of archaeological history to Egypt’s economy.
 
  2 But thieves are raiding ourarchaeological sites and selling their findings to the highest bidders. Theyare taking advantage of Egypt’s security situation to loot our nation’seconomic future and steal from our children.
 
  然后作者告诉了我们一个让人心痛的事实,那就是文物盗窃及拍卖猖獗,直接影响到了埃及的民生
  The author tells us a heartbreaking fact,antiquity theft of Egypt’s national treasuries and illegal auction.
  关键词: thieves, loot, steal from our children
  Word choice, such as thieves, loot, andsteal from our children appeals to readers’ sense of indignation and theirsympathy to help protect these archaeological sites and findings.
 
  第一第二段,作者引出了话题,同时为全文打下了基础 lay a strongfoundation for further argument. 接下来作者开始论述
 
  3 Egyptians need the people and thegovernment of the United States to support our efforts to combat the systematicand organized looting of our museums and archaeological sites. Imagine a worldin which the stories of King Tut, Cleopatra, Ramesses and others were absent fromthe collective consciousness. And with much of our history still waiting to bediscovered under the sand, the potential losses are staggering. Antiquitiestheft is one of the world’s top crimes — after the trafficking of weapons,narcotics and people — but it is seldom addressed.
 
  作者向美国政府和人民寻求帮助,希望得到美国的支持,打击文物盗窃及非法拍卖。 作者运用了大量文物,告诉我们这些文物对世界文化的重要性,从而引起我们对文物盗窃现象的痛恨。
 
  关键词: Egyptians need…support, thus appealing to readers’ sense of duty to helpEgypt in the fight against rampant antiquity theft.
 
  Imagine a world (a number of well-knownexamples of cultural and historical relics) are absent. The author plead thereaders to think about the importance of those world-renowned cultural andhistorical treasures, in contrast to the fact of rampant theft and looting. Theauthor intends to raise readers’ awareness towards the gravity of the problemwhich is often overlooked by global community.
 
  4 Egyptian antiquities are floodinginternational markets. Recent auctions at Christie’s in London and New Yorkincluded several items from Egypt. Fortunately, when contacted, Christie’s inLondon withdrew a number of itemsthat had been stolen from the tomb of KingAmenhotep III, discovered in 2000 in Luxor. Among the items was a steatite bustof an official dating from 1793 to 1976 B.C.
 
  这一段作者是在引用典型例子, 证明antiquity theft andillegal auction是多么猖獗,而这些都是在NYC 和 London这样的地方发生的,拍卖行是Christie’s 这样的知名公司,读了让人觉得非常气愤。后半段作者在谈论这些文物的重要性。
 
  关键词: flood international markets, includeat Christie’s London and New York aunctions.
 
  5 Although arrests were made in this case,and two auction houses in Jerusalem canceled the sale of 126 antiquities afterbeing contacted by Egyptian officials, the tide unfortunately flows in theother direction. After being contacted by the Egyptian foreign ministry, otherauction houses have been unwilling to cooperate with requests to delay orcancel sales of items that experts assess have been stolen. Among those whomake their money selling antiquities, cooperation with the Egyptian governmenthas been mixed at best.
 
  这一段承认了在打击文物盗窃方面的成就,大公司Christie‘s终止了拍卖,但同时,作者再次指出,更多的拍卖行知法犯法,让读者听了更加的生气。
 
  关键词: other auction houses have beenunwilling to cooperate. Cooperation…has been mixed at best.
 
  The author intends to exacerbate/escalatethe anger among the readers toward auction houses who deliberately ignoreEgyptian government’s requests, thus appealing to their sense of righteousnessnot to boycott the auction houses that sell Egyptian cultural relics.
 
  6 Looting is a centuries-old business and acrime that Egyptians will no doubt be fighting for years, especially duringdifficult economic times. Our country is willing to take a strong stand. No onecan forget the stark images of Egyptians — men and women, Muslims andChristians, young and old — creating a human shield to protect the EgyptianMuseum in Cairo during the 2011 revolution. Still, thieves succeeded instealing several items from its collection. Despite our government’s bestefforts to retrieve those artifacts, more than 50 items, including some fromthe famous King Tut tomb, remain missing.
 
  这一段在论述埃及在打击文物盗窃一贯的努力,强调整个国家、无论男女老幼、不同种族和信仰都达成了一致,但就如“没有买卖,就没有杀戮“,作者在论述根本原因”root cause”是买方市场,这位文章后面的呼吁做铺垫。
 
  关键词: Looting is a centruies-oldbusiness.  Our country ….strong stand,human shield to protect. (in contrast) thieves succeeded in stealing.
 
  7 In the Aug. 14 attack on the MalawiNational Museum, in Minya, more than 1,000 items were taken: statues more than3,500 years old; jewelry from the time of the ancient Pharaohs; Greco-Romangold coins. When security forces tried to stop them, the thieves burned someitems they could not take, including mummies.
 
  更多例子来证明自己的观点,文物盗窃还是很猖獗。
 
  8 Every day, Egyptians risk their lives toprevent organized gangs from stealing our heritage. Our country is not the onlyplace under attack: Iraq, Syria, Libya, Peru and Guatemala are sufferingsimilar assaults on their heritage. Halting these crimes on our civilizationwill require a coordinated global effort — from both the “producers” and the“consumers.”
 
  更多的国家都在打击文物盗窃,这样就把这个问题放在全球视野内,Iraq, Syria,Libya等都是典型例子,这里可以评价文物盗窃是世界性的问题,同时,这些国家和埃及都一样,都属于发展中国家,有些面临战乱的困扰,这样就更需要发达国家的民众抵制这些无良商家。
 
  关键词:Our country is not the only place underattack.  Halting these crimes…require acoordinated global effort.
 
  The author claims that looting of antiquityis a global problem. To back up his claim, he quote countries such as Iraq,Syria, Libya etc as examples to back up his claim. As these countries, more orless, share similarities with Egypt—all are developing countries, some aresuffering from wars, these once again appeals to readers’ sense of duty toboycott such auction deals in auction houses.
 
  9 It is our common duty, in Egypt andaround the world, to defend our shared heritage. International institutions,governments, business, archaeologists and other experts must come together toexplore how to help countries in need protect their treasures. The efforts ofgroups such as the International Coalition to Protect Egyptian Antiquities areappreciated — but much more aid is necessary. The youths of Egypt deserve more.There is no time to waste.
 
  作者最后呼吁了这是我们共同的责任,来保护这些文物,希望大家支持国际组织在打击文物盗窃的努力,同时强调了问题的紧迫。
 
  Toward the end of the article, the authoronce again appeals to readers’ duty in the fight against antiquity theft, callfor their support for international organizations. The author also point outthat this is an urgent task.
 
  本文为沃邦教育SAT教研组原创,转发请经授权后再操作。
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上海|暑假培训班课表-SAT/ACT/TOEFL/SSAT/雅思3-6人班

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