沃邦名师5月5日亚太SAT考试考情速递


来源:   时间:2018-05-05 13:14:38

  季春五月,柳絮乱飞。风香云淡,芳草萋萋。花浓叶绿,禽徜小溪。韩愈曰,“五月榴花照眼明,枝间时见子初成”。
 
  今天上午,2018年美国高考SAT亚太5月考试结束,沃邦SAT教研组第一时间全方位回顾考情,以飨读者。希望对本次考试的考生,以及准备参加今年8月北美的考生有所帮助。
 
  本次考试阅读整体难度中等,历史类双篇,观点相似,比较少见。三篇科学类文章相对简单。语法整体难度居中,考点常规,部分考点重复出现。数学整体简单,无需复杂计算,考点重复,本文数学不做回忆。
 

  阅读部分

 
  第一篇:小说
 
 
  文章概述:
 
  1835年,作者Nicolai Gogol ,选自小说“The MysteriousPortrait”
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  文章共4段
 
  大意:讲述一个年轻的画家在为摆脱现实生活的穷困窘境而取悦大众和维持高水准的艺术创作标准之间的矛盾。
 
  第一段:简要概括艺术家的创作风格和才华
 
  第二段:教授对年轻艺术家的告诫,教授首先肯定艺术家的才华,但是又警告他要把心思放在赚钱和取悦大众,追求流行上,教授已经发现了年轻艺术家有这方面的端倪。对此表示遗憾。认为别的画家可以为赚钱流于俗套,但是Nchartkoff是有天赋的人,应该更耐心地把精力花在创作上。
 
  第三段:Narrator陈述了artist的生活和心境。此人在绘画时会废寝忘食,而且有很高的艺术鉴赏力和才华。但是当没钱付房租的时候,他也会羡慕那些既有钱又有名气的画家们。
 
  第四段:narrotor 带我们走进了艺术家的内心纠结,他用了一系列的反问句来表现心里的矛盾和痛苦。他的那些严肃作品即使全部卖出,别人也不会给他几个钱。不出名,那些人能了解他买他的画作呢?教授让自己耐心,但是耐心能让他脱离这种贫困生活吗?
 
 
  题目:
 
  第一题:大意题:the passage mainly concerns, (答案:the struggle the artist’s values)
 
  第二题:段落目的题,the main purpose of the first paragraphis ,(答案:to present the main character’sartistic traits)
 
  第三题&第四题:询证题,the professor’sview of great art is, (答案:it should be artistic accomplished andnot garish)
 
  第五题:词汇题,fashionable, (答案:trendy)
 
  第六题:细节推断题,the professor and the artist differs intheir views concerning whether, (答案:gaining money is detrimental to artisticintegrity)
 
  第七题:词汇题,考want, (答案:need)
 
  第八题&第九题:询证题,问the artist’s view of highartistic standard is that ,(答案:it is laborious and does not get thedeserved compensation)
 
  第十题:段落目的题,问the purpose of the last paragraph,(答案:tocatalogue the frustrations of the young artist)
 
  文章原文:
 
  Young Chartkov was an artist with a talent that promised much: in flashes and moments his brush bespoke power of observation, understanding, a strong impulse to get closer to nature.
 
  "Watch out, brother," his professor had told him more than once, "you have talent; it would be a sin to ruin it. But you're impatient. Some one thing entices you, some one thing takes your fancy—and you occupy yourself with it, and the rest can rot, you don't care about it, you don't even want to look at it. Watch out you don't turn into a fashionable painter. Even now your colors are beginning to cry a bit too loudly. Your drawing is imprecise, and sometimes quite weak, the line doesn't show; you go for fashionable lighting, which strikes the eye at once. Watch out or you'll fall right into the English type. Beware. You already feel drawn to the world: every so often I see a showy scarf on your neck, a glossy hat. . . It's enticing, you can start painting fashionable pictures, little portraits for money. But that doesn't develop talent, it ruins it. Be patient.Ponder over every work, drop showiness—let the others make money. You won't come out the loser."
 
  The professor was partly right. Sometimes, indeed, our artist liked to carouse or play the dandy—in short, to show off his youth here and there. Yet, for all that, he was able to keep himself under control. At times he was able to forget everything and take up his brush, and had to tear himself away again as if from a beautiful, interrupted dream. His taste was developing noticeably. He still did not understand all the depth of Raphael, but was already carried away by the quick, broad stroke of Guido, paused before Titian's portraits, admired the Flemish school. 6 The dark surface obscuring the old paintings had not yet been entirely removed for him; yet he already perceived something in them, though inwardly he did not agree with his professor that the old masters surpassed us beyond reach; it even seemed to him that the nineteenth century was significantly ahead of them in certain things, that the imitation of nature as it was done now had become somehow brighter, livelier, closer; in short, he thought in this case as a young man thinks who already understands something and feels it in his proud inner consciousness. At times he became vexed when he saw how some foreign painter, a Frenchman or a German, sometimes not even a painter by vocation, with nothing but an accustomed hand, a quick brush, and bright colors, would produce a general stir and instantly amass a fortune. This would come to his mind not when, all immersed in his work, he forgot drinking and eating and the whole world, but when he would finally come hard up against necessity, when he had no money to buy brushes and paints, when the importunate landlord came ten times a day to demand the rent. Then his hungry imagination enviously pictured the lot of the rich painter; then a thought glimmered that often passes through a Russian head: to drop everything and go on a spree out of grief and to spite it all. And now he was almost in such a situation.
 
  “Yes! be patient, be patient!" he said with vexation. "But patience finally runs out. Be patient! And on what money will I have dinner tomorrow? No one will lend to me. And if I were to go and sell all my paintings and drawings, I'd get twenty kopecks for the lot. They've been useful, of course, I feel that: it was not in vain that each of them was undertaken, in each of them I learned something. But what's the use? Sketches, attempts—and there will constantly be sketches, attempts, and no end to them. And who will buy them, if they don't know my name? And who needs drawings from the antique, or from life class, or my unfinished Love of Psyche, or a perspective of my room, or the portrait of my Nikita, though it's really better than the portraits of some fashionable painter? What is it all, in fact? Why do I suffer and toil over the ABC's like a student, when I could shine no worse than the others and have money as they do?”
 
 
  第二篇
 
  文章概述:
  一篇相对简单直白的社会学科科研型文章,科研型文章的要素基本都有,诸如research question / experimental design / results / evaluation等。
 
  文章主旨:研究记忆力和错误记忆(falsememory)的关系。第一段引出什么是 false memory,并说了下它的严重性,清白的人可能会因为别人的错误记忆被指认为有罪(有题)。
 
  有人推测记忆力好的人更不容易出现false memory。文章通过一个实验,比较记忆力好的人和普通记忆的人,然后通过在实验中认为设置一些干扰记忆(错误记忆),比如sleep是pilow和bed的干扰词。
 
  实验结果:记忆力对错误记忆没有影响。
 
  倒数第二段说结果不让人意外。
 
  最后一段延伸到我们没有关于记忆力强的definitive explanation。
 
  题目:
 
  第一题:词汇题 curiosity。
 
  第二题&第三题:细节信息加证据,考第一段结尾,false memory有害(damaging)。
 
  第四题:词汇题 exact。
 
  第五题:考察实验设计,问它设置的那些干扰词有什么特点(criticallure)。
 
  第六题:考倒数第二段主旨,别的科学家不意外。
 
  第七题:考第6题的证据。
 
  第八题:跟原文无关的图表,很简单,读记忆力强组的Y轴。
 
  第九题:跟原文无关的图表题,结合两个图标考对照组的两个Y值。
 
  第十题:跟原文有关的图表题,图表信息支持了文章核心主旨,记忆力跟错误记忆的。
 
  文章原文:
  RememberThat? No You Don’t. Study Shows False Memories Afflict Us All
  Even people with extraordinary memories sometimes make things up without realizing it
 
  It’s easy enough to explain why we rememberthings: multiple regions of the brain — particularlythe hippocampus — are devoted to the job. It’s easy to understand why we forgetstuff too: there’s only so much any busy brain can handle. What’s trickier iswhat happens in between: when we clearly remember things that simply neverhappened.
 
  The phenomenon of false memories iscommon to everybody — the party you’re certain you attended in high school,say, when you were actually home with the flu, but so many people have told youabout it over the years that it’s made its way into your own memory cache.False memories can sometimes be a mere curiosity, but other times they havereal implications. Innocent people have gone to jail when well-intentionedeyewitnesses testify to events that actually unfolded an entirely differentway.
 
  What’s long been a puzzle to memoryscientists is whether some people may be more susceptible to false memoriesthan others — and, by extension, whether some people with exceptionally goodmemories may be immune to them. A new study in the Proceedings of the NationalAcademy of Sciences answersboth questions with a decisive no. False memories afflict everyone — evenpeople with the best memories of all.
 
  (MORE: Creating False Memories in Mice’s Brains — and Yours)
 
  To conduct the study, a team led bypsychologist Lawrence Patihis of the University of California, Irvine, recruited a sample group of people all ofapproximately the same age and divided them into two subgroups: those withordinary memory and those with what is known as highly superiorautobiographical memory (HSAM). You’ve met people like that before, and theycan be downright eerie. They’re the ones who can tell you the exact date onwhich particular events happened — whether in their own lives or in the news — aswell as all manner of minute additional details surrounding the event that mostpeople would forget the second they happened.
 
  To screen for HSAM, the researchershad all the subjects take a quiz that asked such questions as “[On what date]did an Iraqi journalist hurl two shoes at President Bush?” or “What publicevent occurred on Oct. 11, 2002?” Those who excelled on that part of thescreening would move to a second stage, in which they were given random,computer-generated dates and asked to say the day of the week on which it fell,and to recall both a personal experience that occurred that day and a publicevent that could be verified with a search engine.
 
  “It was a Monday,” said one personasked about Oct. 19, 1987. “That was the day of the big stock-market crash andthe cellist Jacqueline du Pré died that day.” That’s somepretty specific recall. Ultimately, 20 subjects qualified for the HSAM groupand another 38 went into the ordinary-memory category. Both groups werethen tested for their ability to resist developing false memories during aseries of exercises designed to implant them.
 
  (MORE: This is Your Brain on Fairness)
 
  In one, for example, theinvestigators spoke with the subjects about the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks andmentioned in passing the footage that had been captured of United Flight 93crashing in Pennsylvania — footage, of course, that does not exist. In bothgroups — HSAM subjects and those with normal memories — about 1 in 5 people “remembered”seeing this footage when asked about it later.
 
  “It just seemed like something wasfalling out of the sky,” said one of the HSAM participants. “I was just, youknow, kind of stunned by watching it, you know, go down.”
 
  Word recall was also hazy. Thescientists showed participants word lists, then removed the lists and testedthe subjects on words that had and hadn’t been included. The lists allcontained so-called lures — words that would make subjects think of other,related ones. The words pillow, duvet and nap, for example, might lead to a false memory of seeing the word sleep. All of the participants in both groups fell for the lures,with at least eight such errors per person—though some tallied as many as 20.Both groups also performed unreliably when shown photographs and fed luresintended to make them think they’d seen details in the pictures they hadn’t.Here too, the HSAM subjects cooked up as many fake images as the ordinaryfolks.
 
  “What I love about the study is howit communicates something that memory-distortion researchers have suspected forsome time, that perhaps no one is immune to memory distortion,” said Patihis.
 
  What the study doesn’t do, Patihisadmits, is explain why HSAM people exist at all. Their prodigious recall is amatter of scientific fact, and one of the goals of the new work was to see ifan innate resistance to manufactured memories might be one of the reasons. Buton that score, the researchers came up empty.
 
  “It rules something out,” Patihissaid. “[HSAM individuals] probably reconstruct memories in the same way thatordinary people do. So now we have to think about how else we could explain it.”He and others will continue to look for that secret sauce that elevatessuperior recall over the ordinary kind. But for now, memory still appears to befragile, malleable and prone to errors — for all of us.
 
  第三篇
 
  文章概述:
  文章标题:beans’ talk 2013年,economist newspaper limited。
 
  第一段,提出有一个现象,植物可能是相互联系的,当一个植物收到攻击或者影响,就会像其他植物发出报警信号,就像 local Wi-Fi 一样,那么有一个理论被提出,是不是当有蚜虫攻击植物,植物就会通过一些 fungi 去给邻居植物发出信号呢。
 
  第二段,写调查者通过之前对于该现象的研究发现,植物受到攻击就会通过 irritate  而且发出相关信号去吸引 wasp,那么现在基于这个结果,调查者要去进一步通过实验调查的是到底是不是通过 fungi 发出的信号, fungi 到底是不是信息传播者。
 
  第三段,讲解了实验的一些基本情况,例如分为8个小组,每个实验小组有5株植物,然后对于不同的植物进行不同的变量控制。
 
  第四段,讲解对于不同的实验组进行变量控制之后出现的不同反应。
 
  第五段,开始总结实验结果和推理实验结论,本段讲解的是 infested 的植物是可以通过 fungi 发送信号给邻居植物,并且吸引黄蜂,消灭蚜虫的。
 
  第六段,讲解 uninfected 的植物所反映出来的实验结果,其结果也同样让人惊讶。
 
  最后一段,论述在植物中的细菌,菌类和植物之间的关系,其中正向情感词 help 可以有效帮助解题。
 
  题目:
 
  第一题:文章目的题,问整篇文章的 purpose,其中正确答案应该理论通过实验去论证,有干扰项 undermine了一个理论等。
 
  第二题:段落作用,考察第一段为后面引出讨论起到了什么样的作用,其中迷惑选项有无中生有信息例如 parasite interaction 等,答案应该为将现象生活化,后面进行科学讨论和研究。
 
  第三题:细节题,考察作者在研究菌类和植物的关系,基于了哪些 old fact?答案应该出自信息 line 10,讲到过去的研究表明植物可以释放 volatile chemical。
 
  第四题:细节题,问文章中调查人员做的实验的实验目的是什么?根据文章行号line15 部分,可以看到有同义词对应,本次试验 set out 等,为了证明细菌等是否是被攻击信息的传播者。
 
  第五题:询证题,同上题。
 
  第六题:段落作用题,问第三四段的段落作用是什么, 解题应该更好理解三四段段落大意,明晰在整个实验中的作用,三四段重点讲解的是:试验把植物分为几组,并且各自控制何种变量,答案应为 experiment condition。
 
  第七题:词汇题考察 control 的语境含义,文章内容为两种植物,one感染细菌,the other odorless control,选项有 force;restrictive mechanism等。
 
  第八题:细节题,问实验中能够解释为被感染细菌的植物吸引蚜虫的原因,解题需要定位到倒数第二段,讲解第二种实验结果的部分。
 
  第九题:观点总结,题目问,通过文章能够总结出 bean 和 fungi 之间的关系,定位到最后一段讲解双方关系,其中有两help可以帮助解题,答案选项有 mutual beneficial.
 
  第十题:询证题同上一题。
 
  文章原文:
  Beans’ talk 2013年,economist newspaper limited
 
  THE idea that plants have developed a subterranean internet, which they use to raise the alarm when danger threatens, sounds more like the science-fiction of James Cameron’s film “Avatar” than any sort of science fact. But fact it seems to be, if work by David Johnson of the University of Aberdeen is anything to go by. For Dr Johnson believes he has shown that just such an internet, with fungal hyphae standing in for local Wi-Fi, alerts beanstalks to danger if one of their neighbors is attacked by aphids.
 
  Dr Johnson knew from his own past work that when broad-bean plants are attacked by aphids they respond with volatile chemicals that both irritate the parasites and attract aphid-hunting wasps. He did not know, though, whether the message could spread, tomato-like, from plant to plant. So he set out to find out—and to do so in a way which would show if fungi were the messengers.
 
  As they report in Ecology Letters, he and his colleagues set up eight “mesocosms”, each containing five beanstalks. The plants were allowed to grow for four months, and during this time every plant could interact with symbiotic fungi in the soil.
 
  Not all of the beanstalks, though, had the same relationship with the fungi. In each mesocosm, one plant was surrounded by a mesh penetrated by holes half a micron across. Gaps that size are too small for either roots or hyphae to penetrate, but they do permit the passage of water and dissolved chemicals. Two plants were surrounded with a 40-micron mesh. This can be penetrated by hyphae but not by roots. The two remaining plants, one of which was at the center of the array, were left to grow unimpeded.
 
  Five weeks after the experiment began, all the plants were covered by bags that allowed carbon dioxide, oxygen and water vapor in and out, but stopped the passage of larger molecules, of the sort a beanstalk might use for signaling. Then, four days from the end, one of the 40-micron meshes in each mesocosm was rotated to sever any hyphae that had penetrated it, and the central plant was then infested with aphids.
 
  At the end of the experiment Dr Johnson and his team collected the air inside the bags, extracted any volatile chemicals in it by absorbing them into a special porous polymer, and tested those chemicals on both aphids (using the winged, rather than the wingless morphs) and wasps. Each insect was placed for five minutes in an apparatus that had two chambers, one of which contained a sample of the volatiles and the other an odorless control.
 
  The researchers found, as they expected from their previous work, that when the volatiles came from an infested plant, wasps spent an average of 3? minutes in the chamber containing them and 1? in the other chamber. Aphids, conversely, spent 1? minutes in the volatiles’ chamber and 3? in the control. In other words, the volatiles from an infested plant attract wasps and repel aphids.
 
  Crucially, the team got the same result in the case of uninfected plants that had been in uninterrupted hyphae contact with the infested one, but had had root contact blocked. If both hyphae and roots had been blocked throughout the experiment, though, the volatiles from uninfected plants actually attracted aphids (they spent 3? minutes in the volatiles’ chamber), while the wasps were indifferent. The same pertained for the odor of uninfected plants whose hyphae connections had been allowed to develop, and then severed by the rotation of the mesh.
 
  Broad beans, then, really do seem to be using their fungal symbionts as a communications network, warning their neighbors to take evasive action. Such a general response no doubt helps the plant first attacked by attracting yet more wasps to the area, and it helps the fungal messengers by preserving their leguminous hosts.
 
 
  第四篇
 
  文章概述:
  这次双篇文章观点并不是完全相反的,而是都反对一个Banks Labor Policy,但是观点方面侧重有些不同。作者1说到Banks Labor Policy其实还是奴隶制度,并没有真正的解放黑人,黑人需要利用内战之后和解放奴隶宣言之后的这个政治机会,继续努力争取真正的解放和完全的平等和自由。作者2先对比了古代奴隶制度和美国奴隶制度的不同,然后说到解放奴隶宣言宣布之后黑人的状况,依然没有各方面的政治权利,然后呼吁改变。
 
  题目:
 
  1-4题考查P1
 
  第一题:细节题,考查道格拉斯对于BanksLabor policy,没有给出定位的细节题,但是不难定位,在文章刚开始的,原文说违反了解放奴隶宣言的初衷,答案选择违反了美国政府的的本意。
 
  第二题:单词题,practically在原文的意思是事实上,本质上或者实际上,对应选项中的effectively。
 
  第三题:考查作者手法,属于修辞类考点,问针对一个反驳道格拉斯的观点,道格拉斯在最后一段如何做出回应,答案选道格拉斯运用感情的描写,描绘出美国目前黑人没有真正自由的惨状。
 
  第四题:单词题,deposition原文的意思是现在黑人这种政治环境和条件,对应选项中的placement。
 
  5-7题考查P2
 
  第五题:无定位细节题。问作者2对比了古代的奴隶制度和美国奴隶制度的不同。P2第一段讲到古代的奴隶和奴隶主是一个种族,如果不是奴隶身份了,可以和奴隶主一样。而美国的奴隶制是针对于一个特定的种族(黑人),即使不是奴隶制度了,黑人依然遭受偏见。
 
  第六题:无定位细节题,问作者2为什么说现在要立刻改变,避免Banks法案给美国黑人造成长期的不良影响。答案在文章最后一段结束的部分,作者说现在必须改变,避免根基变深。
 
  第七题:单词题,fired在原文中是想法受到启发,对应选项中的illuminated。
 
  8-11考查双篇
 
  第八题:求同题,比较简单,问两个作者会同意选项中哪个说法,答案选都不同意Banks Labor Policy。
 
  第九题:求异题,问两个作者对于内战CivilWar的看法有何不同,作者一说到内战后给了黑人一个很好的契机去追求更多的权利和真正的平等,作者二说内战让内战结束后南方州的白人对黑人有不好的看法。
 
  第十题&第十一题:寻证题 40题问作者1会如何看待作者2里面的黑人没有到法庭出证等权利,作者1觉得这就是奴隶制,并不是自由,并不是解放了黑人。
 
 
  第五篇:科学
 
  文章概述:
 
  也是简单的自然学科科研型文章。
 
  文章主旨(研究问题):Finch(某种鸟)头的颜色(red vs black)跟personality(aggression/risk-taking/喜欢novelty)有关。
 
  核心假设:红头鸟攻击行为高于黑头鸟,合理的推到是红头鸟也更爱risk-taking和novelty的事物,但因为黑头鸟在觅食上不占优势(被红头鸟打压),所有黑头鸟为了食物的需求也要risk-taking和喜欢novelty。
 
  通过一些精巧的实验,实验结果:红头鸟果然攻击行为高于黑头鸟,但是risk-taking和对novelty兴趣都低于黑头鸟。为了保证准确性,这个实验再一周后又重复了一次。里面有提到每个鸟的个体行为还是比较consistent(出了一道细节加证据)。
 
  最后说risk-taking和对novelty成对出现很正常,特别是有觅食压力的黑头鸟。
 
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  题目:
 
  第一题:目的题,the purpose of the passage is to (答案,to expand people’s knowledge about bird behavior)
 
  第二题:推断题,the second prediction tested in thestudy reflects which assumption (答案,risk-takingbenefits the black-headed birds more than do red-headed birds)
 
  第三题:词汇题,the word “displacement” in the experiment suggests that birds (答案jostle other birds away during feeding)
 
  第四题:“predator”问双引号的作用,最近几次第二次考察引号的作用,体现捕食者是假的。
 
  第五题:考细节,鸟个体的行为比较consistent(两月后)
 
  第六题:针对Q5的证据题
 
  第七题:观点题,题目问下面那种情况是UNLIKELY的对于 individual finch,其中有一个选项讲到红头鸟很快会回到曾经有predator的食物周围,但是并不explorative,整个选项和文章内容不一致,属于 unlikely。
 
  第八题:询证题,基于上一道题目,找到双边关系论述的信息要点,文章最后,讲了boldness和explorative是correlated,支持上一个题目的unlikely。
 
  51题 考查图1,直接来自于图2
  52题 考查图2,直接来自于图2
 
  文章原文:
  title-Gouldian finches’ head colour reflects their personality
 
  What this suggests is that behavioural characteristics, such as aggression and other traits, may be correlated with particular head colour morphs meaning that head colour is indicative of different personality types. This idea has been tested in a new paper by Leah Williams and her colleagues.
 
  In order to determine if head colour really does indicate personality traits in Gouldian finches Williams and her colleagues tested a number of predictions. First they looked at pairs of black-headed birds which were expected to show less aggression towards each other than pairs of red-headed birds, this makes sense since red-headed birds had previously been found to exhibit higher levels of aggression.
 
  The second prediction was that red-headed birds should be bolder, more explorative and take more risks than black-headed birds. This hypothesis is based on previous studies of other species that have shown a correlation between aggression and these behavioural characteristics. However, there is another possibility, red-headed birds could take fewer risks for two reasons; first, they may be more conspicuous to predators due to their bright colouration and second, it may pay black headed birds to take more risks and be more explorative so they find food resources before the dominant red-headed birds do.
 
  In order to test the first prediction paired birds of matching head colour were moved into an experimental cage without food. After one hour of food deprivation a feeder was placed into the corner of the cage where there was only enough room for one bird to feed at a time. aggressive interactions such as threat displays and displacements were then counted over a 30 minute period.
 
  The results as shown in the figure below were striking. Red-headed birds were significantly and consistently more aggressive than black-headed birds.
 
  To test the birds willingness to take risks they were deprived of food for one hour before their feeder was replaced. After the birds had calmly begun to feed a silhouette of an avian predator was moved up and down in front of the cage to scare the birds from the feeder. The time it took for them to return to the feeder was taken as a measure of their willingness to take risks, birds that returned quickly were considered to be greater risk takers than those that were more cautious.
 
  This time the results were surprising. Red-headed birds were considerably more cautious than those with black heads at returning to the feeder after a “predator” had been introduced. As the figure below shows they took on average 4x longer to begin feeding again than the less aggressive black-headed birds.
 
  Finally, the authors investigated the birds interest in novel objects or “object neophilia” which is defined in the paper as “exploration in which investigation is elicited by an object’s novelty“. To do this a bunch of threads was placed on a perch within the cage, the time taken for the birds to approach the threads within one body length and to touch them were recorded over a one hour period. In line with the results from the risk taking experiment it was found that the aggressive red-headed birds showed less interest in novel objects than did black-headed birds. The difference is not so striking as the previous experiments but was statistically significant nonetheless.
 
  These experiments were repeated after a two month interval and showed that different birds differed in their responses but the responses of individual birds were consistent over time. Head colour was found to predict the behavioural responses of the birds. Red-headed birds were more aggressive than black-headed birds but took fewer risks and were not explorative.
 
  What is surprising about these results is that aggression does not correlate with risk taking behaviour, however, the authors do provide a convincing explanation, suggesting that…
 
  Interestingly boldness and risk taking behaviours were found to be strongly correlated, regardless of head colour they always occurred together forming a “behavioural syndrome”. This implies that there is selection in favour of specific combinations of traits and of head colour in relation to those traits. Selection favours aggression in red-headed birds and the boldness/risk taking behavioural syndrome in black-headed birds. This makes sense when you consider the high risk of predation faced by red-headed birds if they take too many risks and the need for black-headed birds to find food away from the dominant red heads which occupy the safest foraging locations.
 
  Williams and her colleagues suggest that if red-headed birds are aggressive, and black-headed birds take more risks, this could lead to differences in foraging tactics. For example, black headed birds could increase their foraging opportunities by feeding at more risky sites away from interference by the dominant red-headed birds which feed in safer locations. The lower conspicuousness of their black heads means they are at less risk of predation at exposed sites that red-headed birds would be.
 
  The results of this fascinating study strongly support the hypothesis that head colour does indeed signal personality in Gouldian finches. I would love to see some more research in this area. The authors themselves suggest that more research is needed to find out what roles head colours play in social situations. It would also be interesting to find out how widespread this phenomenon is, given that birds frequently use plumage colouration as signals it seems likely to me that colour may indicate personality in other avian species.
 

  语法部分

 
  第一篇
 
  文章概述:
 
  Bejamn Banneker : marking time
  本文主要写了BB通过对钟表的研究,进而研究天体运动,将时间精确。通过自身的学习钻研,最终帮助美国选定了capital。他本人也得到广大人民群众尊重和纪念。
 
  题目:
 
  1.代词考点:选their,指代名词clocks
  2. 粘连句考点。逗号前后是完整句子,原句错误。
  3.主旨题。选该段主旨。这一段讲的是bb认识了对他帮助很大的朋友。选的是表达该意思;他建立了坚固的友谊这一项。
  4.合并句子题。可以根据简洁性的原则,把后面句子变为从句,由whose引导。
  5.简洁性考点。选择能够成为简单句的一项即可。
  6.动词考点。这里考到了倒装句。主语是一个人,要选单数过去时态。
  7.副词考点。particularly后面直接加名词。
  8.句子排序题。句子中有his cousin,只要找到对应的人,放到对应句后就可以。
  9.过渡词考点。选today。今天bb是怎样被人纪念的。
  10.精准用词。怀念,追念。commemorate
  11.增删句子。句子是说人们可以在纪念地附近玩什么,与主旨无关,不加。
 
 
  第二篇
 
  文章概述:
 
  energy storage under pressure
 
  文章概述 本文讲述了新型能源如何有效利用。讲述了风力能源的优缺点以及解决办法caes。讲述了风力的潜力和前景。
  题目
 
  题目:
 
  1.增删句子。加该句。因为它说明了清洁能源都有什么。
  2.精准用词。选择peak of,而不是peek for
  3. 简洁性。选能够构成简单句的一项。
  4.句子顺序题。说的是通过挤压空气,获得能量,从而发电,放到段末。
  5. 冒号。冒号后面解释说明了用新能源的两个地方。
  6. 粘连错误。选,and一项。
  7.增删句子。加,说明了新能源的广泛应用
  8.不用标点。主谓之间不用任何标点。
  9.动词主谓一致和时态考点。
  10.精准用词,收集利用能源。capitalize
  11.结论。总结清洁能源有效利用之后前景。
 
  第三篇
 
  文章概述:
 
  A Man of Many Words
 
  讲一个作家自己要写一本字典,一开始只是想要单纯的写字典,但是后来想要通过这本字典来产生一些影响。
 
  题目:
 
  1.syntax 句子合并,选项有两个是并列逻辑,两个是主从逻辑,主从逻辑的两个选项重点不同。
  2.ronon 出现两句句子,逗号和with的选项出现runon可以排除,as和and这两个选项需要通过语义来进行选择。
  3.pron 代词指代,根据语义来判断代词指代对象
  4.tone 四个单词分别为 primo, foremost, hotpot,big-man
  5.句子结构和逻辑,一个选项是SVO,and doing出现结构上的错误可以排除,另外的选项为SVO by doing;SVO,doing;n+doing根据语义来进行选择
  6.proposition 引出段落大意,段落主要讲对于单词进行定义,选项出现关键词definition
  7.support 选出哪个选项可以引出后面的引用,根据引用内容进行选择
  8.tense 根据上下文的时态一致性进行选择
  9.focus 句子加减题 上下文讲文章对象通过他的字典来影响English language加入的句子与上下文无关
  10.transitional words 四个逻辑连接词分别为by the same token, for example, on the contrary, nevertheless
  11.punctuation 考前后逗号的对应,at the very least前后加两个逗号
 
  第四篇
 
  文章概述:
 
  Retailers Benefiting from Paying Well
 
  很多公司通过低价来吸引顾客,这个举动会导致员工薪资的降低。但是如果给员工提薪会带来很多好处,比如减少员工辞职,避免使用没有经验的员工;其次也可以提高员工工作效率,使零售业者获得更多的利益。
 
  题目:
 
  1.precision 文章用来修饰wisdom 四个单词分别为conventional, habitual, accustomed, routine
  2.punctuation 插入语使用 句子结构为doing, and...., while doing
  3.syntax 根据结构和语义来进行选择
  4.punctuation 同位语的标点,两个逗号内对修饰语对前面two chains of stores进行修饰
  5.comparison 要注意比较对象的一致性,the average number is double the number
  6.modifier examing分词修饰主语professor,错误选项为when examined, when they examined, an examiner
  7.quantitative information 哪个选项符合符合图表及段落内容,段落主要讲工资低会导致员工数量减少,根据段落内容来进行选择
  8.quantitative information 哪个选项可以支持句子的前半部分,前半部分说到工资好的公司,员工离开的比例低
  9.support 哪个选项可以引出后文的信息,段落主要讲了两个公司的成功,选项中出现关键success
  10.subject-verb agreement 主语是the success of sth. A of B的结构
  11.选出哪个选项符合文章大意,文章主要讲涨薪可以帮助有更好的收益,选项出现关键词benefit
 

  写作部分

 
  本文选自2014年地New York Times,文章浅显易懂,歌颂地是当下的“分享经济”,鼓励更多的pharmaceuticalcompanies分享临床试验数据,互通有无,分享相关地试验数据,提高研发新药的速度,减少药物的副作用,为社会做出更多的贡献。 这篇文章的evidence部分主要运用的是medical evidence 和典型案例分析(case study),并且用业内的leader做role model,增强persuasiveness;Reasoning的部分来说,主要的是contrast和cause-effect analysis,此外还有pre-emptivecounterargument; emotional appeals主要集中在文章的最后,用sense of duty/responsibility/ Samaritan spirit(好人精神)来uplift social morale.
 
  Give the Data tothe People
 
  1.   LASTweek, Johnson & Johnson announced that it was making all of its clinicaltrial data available to scientists around the world. It has hired my group,Yale University Open Data Access Project, or YODA, to fully oversee the releaseof the data. Everything in the company’s clinical research vaults, including unpublishedraw data, will be available for independent review.
  作者用Johnson &Johnson最近的announcement用以introducethe article.很显然,这个决定非常的突然而且让人感觉惊讶和heart-warming。
 
  2.   Thisis an extraordinary donation to society, and a reversal of the industry’straditional tendency to treat data as an asset that would lose value if exposedto public scrutiny.
  作者发表了对J& J决定的看法,作者用了extraordinary donation 这样的word choice来积极评价这个决定,这个决定无疑是对社会做出了巨大贡献。
 
  3.   Today, more than half of the clinicaltrials in theUnited States, including many sponsored by academic and governmentalinstitutions, are not published within two years of their completion. Oftenthey are never published at all. The unreported results, not surprisingly, areoften those in which a drug failed to perform better than a placebo. As aresult, evidence-based medicine is, at best, based on only some of theevidence. One of the most troubling implications isthat full information on a drug’s effects may never be discovered or released.
  作者告诉了我们这个决定的社会背景,即半数以上的美国医药公司视临床试验数据为行业机密;同时,作者告诉我们,这种现象给社会带来的危害:the most troubling implicationis that full information on a drug’seffects may never be discovered or released.相比之下,J & J 公司的决定就显得很伟大。
 
  4.   Evenwhen studies are published, the actual data are usually not made available. Endusers of research — patients, doctors and policy makers — are implicitly toldby a single group of researchers to “take our word for it.” They are oftenforced to accept the report without the prospect of other independentscientists’ reproducing the findings — a violation of a central tenet of thescientific method.
  作者继续发表对普遍的行业做法,这里作者运用了逻辑分析,说的是这样的做法给medical practitioner带来的困扰。
 
 
  5.   To befair, the decision to share data is not easy. Companies worry that theircompetitors will benefit, that lawyers will take advantage, that incompetentscientists will misconstrue the data and come to mistaken conclusions.Researchers feel ownership of the data and may be reluctant to have others useit. So Johnson & Johnson, as well as companies like GlaxoSmithKline and Medtronic that have made more cautious moves towardtransparency, deserve much credit. The more we share data, however, the more wefind that many of these problems fail to materialize.
  作者继续表扬J&J的决定,说公司的决定不容易,同时作者在分析为何公司不愿意分享这些数据的原因,主要原因是competition和legal entanglement,作者反驳说,其实更多的公司,包括GSK和 Medtronic,加入公开临床数据的分享,这些担心的原因就越不会发生。
 
  6.   In2011, YODA struck a deal with Medtronic to release all the data on one of itsproducts — a device that stimulates the production of bone. At the time,questions had been raised about the device’s safety, including whether itcaused cancer, and about the conflicts of interests of some of the company’sresearchers. Medtronic made the unusual decision to respond to the debate byreleasing the device’s data for independent review. We commissioned and thenpublished two independent reviews of the data, and now have made them globallyavailable.
  为了buttress claim,作者举了个例子(a case in point),2011年YODA 与 Medtronic的合作,这一段主要围绕前段中提到的“为何公司担心分享临床试验数据”展开。
 
 
  7.   Interestingly,the reviews produced somewhat conflicting results. One found that the devicewas no better than a bone graft and might be associated with a slight increasein cancer, while the other found that the device was effective and the cancerrisk inconclusive. To us these differences reinforce the value of open science:now the data are out there for further study.
  作者继续在对这个案例进行详细分析;合作过程中发生的一些conflicting results等正好呼应了作者一开始担心的the mosttroubling implication,同时验证了分享临床数据的好处。
 
  8.   Thisprogram doesn’t mean that just anyone can gain access to the data withoutdisclosing how they intend to use it. We require those who want the data tosubmit a proposal and identify their research team, funding and any conflictsof interest. They have to complete a short course on responsible conduct andsign an agreement that restricts them to their proposed research question. Mostimportant, they must agree to share whatever they find. And we excludeapplicants who seek data for commercial or legal purposes. Our intent is not tobe tough gatekeepers, but to ensure that the data are used in a transparent wayand contribute to overall scientific knowledge.
  这里一段可以说是pre-empt了读者的potential concern,即分享临床数据并不代表这些数据可以被滥用,这样说的目的是打消target audience的顾虑,这样更多的医药公司能够加入分享临床数据的潮流中来。 这里大量地呼吁audience,再次重申了project地社会贡献。
 
  9.   Thereare many benefits to this kind of sharing. It honors the contributions of thesubjects and scientists who participated in the research. It is proof that anorganization, whether it is part of industry or academia, wants to play a roleas a good global citizen. It demonstrates that the organization has nothing tohide. And it enables scientists to use the data to learn new ways to helppatients. Such an approach can even teach a company like Johnson & Johnsonsomething it didn’t know about its own products.
  这一段作者饱醮感情地歌颂了分享精神,希望更多地医药企业能够加入分享队伍,主要是通过appeals to their duty。
 
  10.For the good of society, this is a breakthrough thatshould be replicated throughout the research world.
  最后一段, 作者呼吁更多企业能够加入分享地队伍,为社会做出贡献。
 
  本文为沃邦教育SAT教研组原创,转发请经授权后再操作。
 


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