2018年SAT年度回顾——写作|沃邦年终总结


来源:   时间:2019-01-25 10:44:44

本周沃邦教育为大家带来的是2018年SAT考试的年度盘点~由于篇幅较长,故内容将总共分为4期发出,今天为大家带来的是写作篇
   
回顾2018年SAT写作部分,所用文章均无重复情况,难度方面保持在中等,文章风格以及涉及到的分析手法也依然是大家所熟悉的思路,有部分文章会有些细节上的差异,但整体出题风格趋于稳定。接下去我们就一起来回顾和整理下整年的写作真题,并且针对性地给大家一些备考建议。

 文章信息汇总 

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纵观全年考试文章来源,基本来自和往年类似的出处,即美国的几大主流媒体《New York TImes》,《The Washington Post》,《Time》等。而文章类型从话题范围来说相比较前两年有所缩小,主要集中在环保,教育,社科类等一些和生活更加相关的话题,而往年出现的政治政策类和历史类话题在今年基本没有出现。从文章难度方面考虑,虽然在题材上更贴近了学生的日常生活,但是从文章的内容上来看在整体文章结构和论证方式上来看都变得更加理性,主要通过说理论证来证明作者的观点。所以从这个角度来看,在写作方面CB更加看重学生的逻辑思维,以及对文章结构的整体把握,不再像过去只要抓住某几个点来分析作者意图,而造成只见树木不见森林的思维盲区。
  

 写作中常见的考点剖析 

 
从考点上来看,今年的文章总体减少了以往大量论据的使用,更加注重和加强在整体逻辑和说理方面。文章中对于contrast(对比论证),concession and rebuttal(让步和反驳),reasoning(说理论证)的使用增加,同时结合适当的appeal to pathos(诉诸情感),而对于evidence(论据)的使用明显减少,学生也不能够像过去一样通过简单地分析作者如何通过大量数据增加可信度等千篇一律的说辞来获得高分。CB对于写作评分(尤其是analysis)标准变得更加严苛,空洞无物或者人云亦云的分析思路不在再获得考官青睐。有些试图套用固定模版句式例如“ the author uses vivid personal anecdote to add the credibility and legitimacy to persuade the audience to support his point” 或者“This is definitely an appeal to pathos, forcing the audience to face an emotional-charged inquiry that will spur some kind of response”的同学基本上都遗憾地被拒之于6分门外。同样有些学生对文章理解不到位,只是单纯地从几个段落中提取某几个手法进行分析,而在整体逻辑思维上混乱不清的学生同样无法在分析中获得高分。接下去笔者将选取今年3月亚太写作真题带大家来该从什么样的角度去分析文章才能够迅速抓住考官眼球,在众多文章中脱颖而出。
  

 2018年真题案例分析 

 
今年3月亚太地区考的是发表在华盛顿邮报上的一篇关于保护埃及文物的文章。我们很容易联想到在2016年考过一篇类似的的讲文物保护的文章The lovely stone,但今年这篇在文章结构和语言难度方面都明显低于前者,在手法使用方面,也是学生比较熟悉的contrast,evidence,appeal to emotion等。
 
1.Egypt's future lies in its history, particularly its archaeological history. For hundreds of years the mystery and wonders of the pyramids, the sphinx and the Valley of the Kings have attracted visitors from around the world. Tourism is the lifeblood of Egypt's economy and touches the lives of most Egyptians, whether they work as tour guides, restaurant owners, craftsmen or bus operators. Egypt's history holds the prosperity of the country's future generations, including that of youths— more than 40 million Egyptians are age 30 or younger—who are seeking opportunities.
2.But thieves are raiding our archaeological sites and selling their findings to the highest bidders. They are taking advantage of Egypt's security situation to loot our nation's economic future and steal from our children.
3.Egyptians need the people and the government of the United States to support our efforts to combat the systematic and organized looting of our museums and archaeological sites. Imagine a world in which the stories of King Tut, Cleopatra, Ramesses and others were absent from the collective consciousness. And with much of our history still waiting to be discovered under the sand, the potential losses are staggering. Antiquities theft is one of the world's top crimes—after the trafficking of weapons, narcotics and people—but it is seldom addressed. 
 
文章开头部分作者通过读者熟悉的埃及金字塔,狮身人面像等例子来抓住读者眼球,强调这些文物对于整个埃及和其后代的意义(touches the lives of most Egyptians, the lifeblood of Egypt’s economy。到第二段突然出现转折,读者被告知某些猖狂的小偷不顾及这些文物的意义任然肆意抢劫并且卖给出价高的bidder,这里出现了第一次强烈的对比,意图引起读者对现状的重视和对小偷这种行为的不满,从而引出后面呼吁埃及政府需要美国政府的支持。
 
4.Egyptian antiquities are flooding international markets. Recent auctions at Christie's in London and New York included several items from Egypt. Fortunately, when contacted, Christie's in London withdrew a number of items that had been stolen from the tomb of King Amenhotep III, discovered in 2000 in Luxor. Among the items was a steatite bust of an official dating from 1793 to 1976 B.C.
5.Although arrests were made in this case, and two auction houses in Jerusalem canceled the sale of 126 antiquities after being contacted by Egyptian officials, the tide unfortunately flows in the other direction. After being contacted by the Egyptian foreign ministry, other auction houses have been unwilling to cooperate with requests to delay or cancel sales of items that experts assess have been stolen. Among those who make their money selling antiquities, cooperation with the Egyptian government has been mixed at best.
6.Looting is a centuries-old business and a crime that Egyptians will no doubt be fighting for years, especially during difficult economic times. Our country is willing to take a strong stand. No one can forget the stark images of Egyptians—men and women, Muslims and Christians, young and old— creating a human shield to protect the Egyptian Museum in Cairo during the 2011 revolution. Still, thieves succeeded in stealing several items from its collection. Despite our government's best efforts to retrieve those artifacts, more than 50 items, including some from the famous King Tut tomb, remain missing.
7.In the Aug. 14 attack on the Malawi National Museum, in Minya, more than 1,000 items were taken: statues more than 3,500 years old jewelry from the time of the ancient Pharaohs; Greco-Roman gold coins. When security forces tried to stop them, the thieves burned some items they could not take, including mummies. 
 
中间段落作者通过举例论证来试图说服读者如今埃及面临的遭遇。第四段和第五段作者分别从一个正面例子和一个反面例子(注意两者关系)来进行对比,意图是为了说明虽然有一些文物在埃及政府和当地积极联系以后被追回,但是大部分的文物都流入了国际市场,并且再也无法找回。从正反两个事例看出,目前能够追回的文物远不如丢失的多,从而突出埃及政府的无奈,以及犯罪分子的猖狂。第7段中,作者又通过数据来说明遗弃文物之多(more than 100 items)和价 值之大(more than 3500 years old)。通过这些事实和数据,读者对目前埃及面临的遭遇有了更深的了解,对埃及政府面临的尴尬处境也能够更加理解和同情,从而也就更合理地说明了埃及政府为何需要全世界政府的支持。
 
8.Every day, Egyptians risk their lives to prevent organized gangs from stealing our heritage. Our country is not the only place under attack: Iraq, Syria, Libya, Peru and Guatemala are suffering similar assaults on their heritage. Halting these crimes on our civilization will require a coordinated global effort—from both the "producers" and the "consumers." 
9.It is our common duty, in Egypt and around the world, to defend our shared heritage. International institutions, governments, business, archaeologists and other experts must come together to explore how to help countries in need protect their treasures. The efforts of groups such as the International Coalition to Protect Egyptian Antiquities are appreciated—but much more aid is necessary. The youths of Egypt deserve more. There is no time to waste. 
 
在最后两段中作者通过情感升华来使得自己的观点更加情真意切。作者通过指出埃及不是唯一一个遭到文物偷窃的国家,很多其他国家如伊拉克,叙利亚等国家也同样遭遇到这样的情况。如此文物偷窃不再是埃及一个国家的问题,而是上升到了整个世界的问题。帮助埃及不再是帮助一个国家,而是帮助了全世界国家的文明不受到破坏,从而呼吁了大家团结一致保护文物,引起读者的责任感和使命感。最后一句There is no time to waste也体现了情况之紧急,事态之严重,让读者产生危机感和紧迫感。
  

 备考建议 

 
通过前面关于2018年写作部分的回顾和案例分析,相信同学们已经都了解了现在写作部分大致的考试现状以及自身应该避免的一些问题。笔者建议大家在日常备考的过程中,不要太过于迷信所谓的套路和模版,而更应该注重在分析方面,结合文章的整体思路去考虑作者用的手法对上下文的影响和作用,多思考作者用到的某个手法如何影响到读者,为何读者能够通过这些手法去支持作者,阅读文章的时候可以更多的代入自己的想法和感受,而不是被动机械地去接受信息,真正做到融会贯通,举一反三。
  
本文系上海沃邦原创,未经许可禁止转载。


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2018年SAT年度回顾——阅读|沃邦年终总结

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